Doriathrin - the mothertongue of Lúthien

Also called (in LR:375): Doriathric

All that is known of the language of Doriath is some eighty words found in the Etymologies in LR:347-400, plus one or two words from the Silmarillion chapter 21. Yet this was once the language spoken at the court of King Thingol, who ruled Beleriand for four thousand years of the Sun and sired "the fairest of all the Children of Ilúvatar that was or shall ever be" (Silm. ch. 4). Doriathrin must have been the mothertongue of Lúthien Tinúviel. When she later learnt Beren's native Mannish tongue, he indeed asked her why she bothered, "since her own tongue was richer and more beautiful" (PM:369).

Is Doriathrin to be considered a separate Elvish tongue or a form of Sindarin? The Etymologies was written long before Tolkien finally realized that the Welsh-sounding language in his mythology was not the language the Noldor brought with them from Valinor, as he had thought for over thirty years, but the language of the Grey-elves in Middle-earth. So all of a sudden, Sindarin and Doriathrin were brought into far closer contact than before. Did Doriathrin as a distinct language survive this major revision? Later Tolkien speaks of "the Sindarin of Doriath" (PM:369). But in the Silmarillion, including the parts that were revised after Tolkien had completed LotR, Doriathrin names and phrases persist: Mablung, Nauglamîr, Dagnir Glaurunga, Dior. At least as far as these names are concerned, the Doriathrin of the Etymologies did make it into the mature form of the mythos. Perhaps the Doriathrin language glimpsed in the Etymologies can pass for an archaic form of Sindarin, though it seems to have some peculiarities all its own and is different from the "ON" (Old Noldorin, read Old Sindarin) of the Etymologies. Doriathrin definitely belongs to the same branch of Common Telerin that leads to Sindarin, but it seems to have established its own branch well before Classical Grey-elven was reached, and it is less changed from Common Telerin than Sindarin is. But what is considered a separate language and what is considered a dialect is often dictated by extra-linguistic factors. Perhaps by political decision, Doriathrin is a form of Sindarin, the language of Thingol's subjects - though the king despised the Northern dialect of Grey-elven (PM:369, 372).

Lúthien's song in The Lays of Beleriand p. 354 seems to be pure Sindarin, however. (Here, a post-LotR source is reproduced.) For this and other reasons, some competent people feel that the Doriathrin of the Etymologies - which is the language this article is concerned with - is no longer a "valid" tongue in the mythos as elderly Tolkien had come to see his linguistic scenario. According to this view, the language of Doriath should now be imagined merely as a particularly archaic variant of the Sindarin we know from LotR, and the Doriathrin of the Etymologies must largely be dismissed as an obsolete notion - except for some names, listed above, that Tolkien evidently transferred to Sindarin as he scrapped Doriathrin as a separate language. No quite definite conclusion can be reached in this matter (see, however, the entry roth in the wordlist below). The language here discussed was at least the language of Doriath at one stage of Tolkien's ever-evolving scenario.

One late-source comment on the language of the Hidden Kingdom may be quoted here: "The speech of Doriath...was even in the days of Túrin more antique than that used elsewhere. One thing (as Mîm observed) of which Túrin never rid himself, despite his grievance against Doriath, was the speech he had acquired during his fostering. Though a Man, he spoke like an Elf of the Hidden Kingdom, which is as though a Man should now appear, whose speech and schooling until manhood had been that of some secluded country where the English had remained nearer that of the court of Elizabeth I than of Elizabeth II." (WJ:312)


Concerning the structure of Doriathrin, the following may be noted: While Sindarin expresses genitival relationships by word order alone (Ennyn Durin "Doors [of] Durin"), Doriathrin still preserves a distinct genitive in -a. It is seen in the inscription some Elves from Doriath carved on the stone on Túrin's grave: Túrin Turambar Dagnir Glaurunga, "Túrin Turambar Glaurung's Bane" (translated in the Silmarillion index). According to Tolkien, the endingless Sindarin genitive probably represents inflected forms in the ancient language, so in this respect a speaker of normal Sindarin would indeed find Doriathrin archaic.

According to the Etymologies, stem NAUK, the "[Doriathrin] genitive in -a(n) preceeded" the word it governs. The word there discussed is Nauglamîr "the Necklace of the Dwarves", literally *"Dwarf's Necklace" (naugla + mîr).Yet the word order described here cannot be the only one possible; cf. Dagnir Glaurunga.

The plural genitive ending was -ion, as in region "of holly-trees" (also name Region). Cf. Quenya -ion as in Silmarillion "(story) of the Silmarils". But the ending -ion may have been reinterpreted as an ending meaning land or region; cf. Sindarin Eregion.

While Sindarin typically forms the plurals of nouns by changing the vowels in the style of English man/men or goose/geese, Doriathrin has a plural ending -in. The Sindarin (as well as the English) vowel-changes are originally umlaut phenomena triggered by an ancient plural ending that contained the vowel i, so once again Doriathrin can be called archaic compared to Sindarin:

Eld "Elf, Elda" pl. Eldin
orth "mountain", pl. orthin
roth "cave", pl. rodhin (the voiced quality of the final consonant in the stem ROD is preserved intervocalically - perhaps Doriathrin cannot have voiced spirants finally)
urch "orc", pl. urchin

There is also regorn "holly-tree", pl. regin (reg-orn is quite literally "holly-tree", and the plural ending is suffixed directly to the stem reg "holly"; cf. also genitive plural region). This plural ending is not to be confused with the adjectival ending seen in ngorthin "horrible" from ngorth "horror" (variant -en in lóm "echo", lómen "echoing").

Doriathrin does not seem to have the umlauts characteristic of normal Sindarin. The i in the final syllable of urchin does not cause the u to change to y by assimilation; contrast Sindarin orch pl. yrch (representing archaic forms like urkô pl. urkî or urkôi).

However, the Etymologies at least hints that Doriathrin was similar to Sindarin in one respect. Sometimes, double forms are listed in the Etymologies: Dolmed and Ndolmed (name of a mountain), gol and ngol "wise, magical", gold and ngold "Noldo", golo and ngolo "magic, lore". The stems are NDOL and NGOL, so the alternative forms reflect the original initial combination. Perhaps, as in Sindarin, the original combination influences the form used following certain particles; cf. Sindarin golodh "Noldo", but i ngolodh "the Noldo". Similarly, Doriathrin gold may appear as ngold in certain environments.

One Doriathrin word raises a peculiar question: Had the Elves of Doriath rejected the Quendian duodecimal counting (based on the number 12) in favour of a decimal system like our own? According to WJ:423, all Elves at all times reckoned in twelves; yet the name Menegroth is translated "the Thousand Caves" (according to LR:384 s.v. ROD the elements are meneg + roth, evidently = "thousand" + "cave[s]"). But in a duodecimal system, there is nothing special with the number 1000: It would be expressed as 6-11-4 (sc. 6 x 144 + 11 x 12 + 4 x 1). Thousand would not be a "round number" at all. The first four-digit number in a duodecimal system is 1728 (12 x 12 x 12). That would be proverbial "large number" to someone used to thinking in duodecimal terms, just like 1000 is to us. Could it be that the translation "Thousand Caves" is idiomatic and strictly inaccurate, and that Menegroth actually means "1728 caves"? If so, the correct translation simply would not do in English.

DORIATHRIN WORDLIST with etymological notes

Note: Primitive words "reconstructed" by Tolkien himself are not here asterisked.

          -a genitive ending, seen in Dagnir Glaurunga "Glaurung's Bane". The primitive Common Eldarin genitive ending was - > -ô, derived from an "ancient adverbial element" HO meaning "away, from, from among" (WJ:368). The corresponding entry in the far earlier Etymologies seems to be 3O () "from, away, from among, out of" (LR:360). Could primitive -ô come out as -a in Doriathrin? There are a few Ilkorin words that may seem to show such a development, and as Tolkien imagined things when he wrote the Etymologies, Ilkorin and Doriathrin were closely related (both have the genitive ending -a). In the plural genitive ending -ion, the "genitival" element (< 3O or HO) appears as o; see -ion.
          argad "outside the fence", the exterior, the outside (LR:358 s.v. GAT(H), also LR:349 s.v. AR2). In Doriath, "the fence" of course refers to the Girdle of Melian. The prefix ar- means "outside", derived from the stem AR2, itself undefined in the Etymologies, but the Silmarillion Appendix gives ar- "outside, beside". The second element is gad "fence", q.v.
          argador evidently the Doriathrin name of the lands outside Doriath (GAT(H), cf. ELED). Compound of argad and dor, q.v, hence *"outside-the-fence-land", *"exterior land".
          cwindor "narrator" (LR:366 s.v. KWET). This is a doubtful word according to Tolkien's later conception; in the branch of Eldarin that Doriathrin belongs to, primitive KW became P far back in Elvish linguistic history (WJ:375 cf. 407 note 5). Read *pindor? Anyhow, Tolkien stated that cwindor comes from kwentro "narrator", sc. a nasal-infixed variant of the stem KWET- "say" combined with the masculine/agental ending -ro (cf. Dior from ndeuro). The o in cwindor probably developed to break up a final consonant cluster, since the Common Eldarin form would have been *kwentr after the loss of final short -o (and -a, -e). This word alone in our small corpus provides evidence for the shift nt > nd. Curiously, e here becomes i. It seems that this shift occurs before consonant clusters beginning in a nasal; cf. nîw "nose" from NEÑ-WI (probably via an intermediate form *niñw- before the ñ was lost and the i became lengthened to î in compensation).
          dagnir *"slayer" (Silmarillion, end of chapter 21). Some would say that this is normal Sindarin and not to be connected with the Doriathrin of the Etymologies. The elements are clearly to be connected with the stems NDAK "slay" (LR:375) and DER, strengthened NDER, "man" (LR:375). As in Sindarin, post-vocalic unvoiced plosives become voiced, hence k > g in NDAK > dag-. We might have expected NDER to yield *dir, *ndir instead of nir; perhaps original nd becomes n following a consonant the middle of a compound (and similarly m, n for earlier mb, ng?)
          dair "shadow of trees". Derived from a stem DAY "shadow" (LR:354); the primitive form would probably be *dairê (cf. the Quenya adjective laira "shady", evidently from *dairâ).
          Dairon (name, = Sindarin Daeron). (LR:354 s.v. DAY). The first element should evidently be equated with dair above; the name Dairon is in any case derived from the same stem. The Silmarillion Appendix, entry dae, defines this element as "shadow" and notes that it "perhaps" occurs in Sindarin Daeron. The masculine ending -on is well attested in various Eldarin languages; Dairon may represent primitive *Dairondo.
"Denethor", masculine name that in LR:188 is derived from ndani-thârô "saviour of the Dani" (= Nandor, Green-elves). The second element thârô "saviour" cannot readlily be connected with any element listed in the Etymologies; THAR "across, beyond" (LR:392) seems unable to provide the meaning "saviour", unless a thârô is literally one who brings something or someone beyond danger. Thârô does look like a frequent primitive agental formation. In any case, Tolkien many years later provided a quite different etymology for the name Denethor; in WJ:412 (where no Doriathrin form is mentioned) it is said to mean "lithe-and-lank", from dene- "thin and strong, pliant, lithe", and thara- "tall (or long) and slender". (These elements cannot be connected to anything else in the published corpus.)
          Dior "Successor" (masc. name). Primitive form given as ndeuro, sc. the stem NDEW "follow, come behind" + the masculine agental ending -ro (more often -). The shift eu > io is attested in this word only. There may be an alternative (dialectal?) form *Ndior with the original initial nasalized stop nd intact; cf. Ndolmed beside Dolmed (the first element being derived from a stem NDOL).
          Dolmed "Wet Head" (name of mountain; also Ndolmed). (LR:376 s.v. NDOL, LR:373 s.v. MIZD). Notice that the order of the elements in the compound is actually "Head-Wet". Dol, ndol "head" may come from *ndôlâ (whence Quenya nóla) or - more probably - from *ndolô, whence Old Sindarin ndolo. Concerning the element -med "wet", see méd.
          dôn "back" (noun). Derived from a stem NDAN "back" (evidently as preposition rather than noun). The primitive form may be assumed to be *ndân- with some lost final vowel. For another example of long â becoming ô, cf. drôg "wolf" from d'râk.
          dor "land", isolated from Argador, Eglador, Lómendor (q.v.) In the Etymologies, the Eldarin words for "land" are derived from a stem NDOR "dwell, stay, rest, abide" (LR:376). No Doriathrin word is there listed, but dor would have the same origin as the identical Sindarin word: primitive ndorê. Notice, however, that Tolkien many years later derived the Eldarin words for "land" from a stem DORO "dried up, hard, unyielding" (WJ:413). However, this later source does confirm that the Primitive Quendian form was ndorê, now thought to be formed by initial enrichment d > nd. This is defined as "the hard, dry land as opposed to water or bog", later developing the meaning "land in general as opposed to sea", and finally also "a land" as a particular region, "with more or less defined bounds". (The bounds of Eglador, sc. Doriath, were of course very well defined by the Girdle of Melian.)
          dorn "oak". Derived from a stem DORÓN, simply defined as "oak"; Quenya norno and Sindarin doron together indicate a primitive form *dorónô. For another example of Doriathrin dropping both the second and the third vowel in a word of this structure, cf. gold from ngolodô; cf. also gald from galadâ.
          drôg "wolf". In LR:354 derived from a stem DARÁK, itself undefined; the primitive form is given as d'râk. Our general knowledge of the structure of primitive words, as well as Quenya ráca rather than **rát, points rather to a primitive form *d'râkâ. But the final vowel, if it ever existed, was lost in Doriathrin, and â was rounded to produce ô (cf. dôn above).
          dunn "black". In LR:355 derived from a stem DUN "dark (of colour)"; the primitive form would be *dunnâ with the adjectival ending - (or possibly the simpler ending -â combined with medial fortification n > nn). In the Etymologies, the Doriathrin word dunn is also mentioned in the entry ÑGOROTH, LR:377. The adjective (or just the stem) also occurs as a prefix dun- in dungorthin; see Nan Dungorthin.
          durgul "sorcery" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). The literal meaning is rather "dark lore/magic". The element dur "dark" is not otherwise attested in Doriathrin, but compare Sindarin dûr "dark, sombre", derived from a stem DO3, (LR:354), not defined as such but apparently having to do with night. Dur must be assumed to derive from an adjective *do3râ, *dôrâ (- being a frequent adjectival ending). The second element, -gul, is derived from a stem ÑGOL "wise, wisdom, be wise" (LR:377). Compare Sindarin morgul - Doriathrin also has mor(n)gul, q.v., with the same meaning as durgul. The second element of Sindarin morgul is commented upon in the Silmarillion Appendix, entry gûl (evidently based on the text now printed in WJ:383): "The Sindarin word [gûl] was darkened in sense by its frequent use in the compound 'black arts'." What is evidently the primitive form of gûl is given in PM:360: ñgôlê, with lengthening of the stem-vowel and the ending -ê, often used to derive abstracts. - It is probable that both elements of durgul had long vowels when they appeared independently: *dûr, *gûl, the vowels preserving the quantity (though not the quality) of the ô's in primitive *dôrâ, ngôlê. The vowel of *dûr is apparently shortened because it is followed by a consonant cluster in this compound, while the vowel of *gûl is shortened because it is unstressed.
          Eglador "land of the Elves", the Doriathrin name of Doriath (LR:356 s.v. ELED, also LR:358 s.v. GAT(H)). Concerning the final element, see dor. The element egla- is the same as Quenya Elda, which also has a closer Doriathrin cognate Eld (q.v.) In the Etymologies, Egla- and Eld- are derived from a stem ÉLED- "Star-folk", clearly to be understood as an extended form of the stem EL "star" (LR:356 cf. 355). Tolkien dropped an older etymology that connected ELED with LED "go, fare, travel" instead (LR:368 cf. 356); this would have identified the Eldin (Quenya Eldar) as the Elves that embarked on the Great March from Cuiviénen. Doriathrin Eld was probably meant to descend from *eledâ, while egla- was to be derived from *edelâ with d and l transposed. After the syncope of medial e, the d and the l made contact, and the sequence dl became gl in Doriathrin. Since final vowels are not preserved in Doriathrin, we would expect *edelâ to yield *egl rather than egla. Perhaps the final -a was preserved in the compound Eglador because it was not there final, or perhaps the a is actually the Doriathrin genitive ending: "Elf's-land". Compare Nauglamîr *"Dwarf's-necklace", stated by Tolkien to include the genitive -a; cf. also Goldamir "Noldo-jewel", Silmaril (the Doriathrin word for Noldo being gold, hence *"Noldo's Jewel" (LR:375 s.v. NAUK, LR:377 s.v. ÑGOLOD).
          el "star", in LR:355 derived from a stem EL, simply defined as "star". According to WJ:360, Elvish legend had it that the Eldarin words for "star" are to be referred to a primitive exclamation ele, "lo!", "behold!" - supposedly what the Elves said when they first saw the stars. (Cf. WJ:422.) The primitive (Common Eldarin) form is given in WJ:360 as êl.
          [El-boron] (masc. name; spelt Elboron with no hyphen in LR:351 s.v. BARATH). In LR:353, El-boron is listed under the stem BOR "endure", but this name was struck out. It was intended as the name of one of Dior's sons, but Tolkien later called the character in question Elrûn instead, finally becoming Elurín in the published Silmarillion. The first element of El-boron is obviously el "star", q.v.; boron is apparently the stem BOR with the masculine ending -on, hence "enduring/faithful man": primitive *borondo.
          Eld pl. Eldin "Elda, elf" (ELED). In the Etymologies, this word was derived from a stem ÉLED "Star-folk" (LR:356); see Eglamar above concerning the early etymology of Eld and related words. In Tolkien's later scenario, Eld would descend from eldâ, an adjectival formation "connected or concerned with the stars", derived from ele (see under el) with medial fortification l > ld and adjectival -â, see WJ:360). This refers to the story that "Oromë loved the Quendi, and named them in their own tongue Eldar [primitive form actually Eldâi], the people of the stars" - because he found them under a starlit sky (Silmarillion ch. 3). Later, this word was no longer applied to all the Quendi, but only those who started on the March to Valinor, whether they actually got there or not.
          gad "fence", in LR:358 derived from a stem GAT(H) that is not itself defined; other derivatives in various languages have meanings like "cavern, prison, dungeon, cave". The primitive form of gad must be assumed to be *gat- with some lost final vowel, but how could a stem primarily having to do with caves yield a word for "fence"? Are we to assume a semantic development "cave" > "place one cannot escape from" > "prison/dungeon" > "bounded area" > "fenced area" > "fence"? It may be noted that gad - and argad, q.v. - were words that were added to this entry after it was originally written; do they suggest a change in Tolkien's conception? In the same entry, Sindarin/"Noldorin" Doriath is interpreted "Land of the Cave", the final element apparently being equated with "Noldorin" gath "cavern" (lenited -ath). Later, Tolkien interpreted Doriath as "Land of the Fence" instead, referring to the Girdle of Melian, the second element now being equated with be iâth, iath "fence" (WJ:370, 378), but this is apparently not to be connected with this entry GAT(H).
          galbreth < galdbreth "beech-tree". The Etymologies is somewhat ambiguous about the status of this word in Doriathrin: LR:352 s.v. BERÉTH states that "the beech was called Falasse, and neldor in Doriath" (see neldor). Here, galbreth would seem to be a Falathrin rather than a Doriathrin word. However, the very entry that lists the word neldor (NEL, LR:376) also states that "the proper Dor[iathrin] name was galdbreth > galbreth". The solution seems to be that galbreth is the proper name of the beech both in Falathrin and Doriathrin, and moreover the only name used in Falathrin, while the people of Doriath usually substituted the term neldor - which was not held to be the "proper" name of this tree. Whatever the case, galdbreth > galbreth incorporates gald "tree" (q.v. for discussion), while the final element breth is to be referred to a stem BERÉTH (LR:352), not defined as such but only yielding words having to do with beeches. The primitive form is given as b'rethâ (presumably for even older *beréthâ, before the loss of the unaccented vowel); when used to form nouns, the ending -â usually denotes inanimates.
          gald "tree" (LR:357 s.v. GALAD). In Letters:426, the root is said to be GAL "grow", intransitive, and in UT:266, primitive galadâ is defined as "great growth". This word was used of spreading trees, while more slender trees were called ornê [Doriathrin orn], though this distinction was not consistently maintained in Quenya (in which language the words came out as alda and ornë) and was abandoned in altogether in Sindarin (galadh vs. orn, the latter was rare as an independent word). Since it is said that Doriathrin orn (q.v.) is especially used of beeches (and may denote any tree in compounds), it may well be that Tolkien intended gald to have acquired the same wide sense as Quenya alda, and no longer meant "spreading tree" only. Indeed gal(d)breth is listed as a name of the beech; see galbreth above. - In the Etymologies, Quenya alda is derived from a stem GALAD, simply defined as "tree" (LR:357); this may be understood as an extended form of the stem GAL mentioned in Letters:426. It is, however, tempting to compare primitive galadâ from GAL with ñgolodo "Noldo, wise one" from ÑGOL; gala- could be an ómataina-form of the stem GAL (with base vowel suffixed), and - could be an ending comparable to the personal ending - in ñgolodô, the ending -â often referring to something inanimate just like the final vowel -ô very often denotes a (masculine) animate.
          ganu "male" (as noun: a male, of Men or Elves, or a male animal). Final vowels are rare in Doriathrin, since they were dropped at an earlier stage. This may be no real exception, since this -u probably descends from a consonant: In LR:360, ganu is derived from a stem 3AN, simply defined as "male". If we assume a primitive adjective *3anwâ "male" with the adjectival ending -, well attested elsewhere, this may have yielded 3anw, ganw after the loss of final vowels, the final semi-vowel then becoming a full vowel -u. (Compare gelu below.) Interestingly, this derivation would imply that ganu is not really the direct cognate of Quenya hanu of similar meaning; hanu would descend from *3anû with the masculine ending -û, but this would probably come out as *gan in Doriathrin. It seems that the meaning of ganu has drifted from adjective (*3anwâ) to noun. - In the scenario of the Etymologies, primitive initial 3 (the voiced back-spirant, gh) becomes g in Doriathrin/Ilkorin and Nandorin (Danian). Compare garm, garth, gell, gelu below. In later sources, Tolkien reconstructed the primitive version of the sound in question as h rather than 3; for instance, Quenya ho, - "from" is derived from a stem HO in WJ:368, while the same word was derived from 3O, in the Etymologies (see LR:360). Tolkien in a late source states that Primitive Quendian h "survived only in the dialects of Aman" (WJ:365), thus throwing considerable doubt upon the validity of these Doriathrin, Ilkorin and Nandorin forms in his later scenario. If these words are to be accepted, we would have to assume that Tolkien meant that Primitive Quendian h survived as H only in the dialects of Aman (while it had been lost or changed to a quite different sound, merging with another phoneme, in non-Amanya languages!)
          garm "wolf". Originally, in LR:360, derived from an undefined stem 3ARAM. Other forms given - like Sindarin garaf and Quenya harma - point to a primitive form *3aramâ. However, Tolkien deleted the entry 3ARAM; he probably wanted to avoid the clash with Quenya harma "treasure". Nonetheless, the Doriathrin word garm reappeared in LR:377, now derived from a stem ÑGAR(A)M. This stem is not defined (all its derivatives mean "wolf"), though in remote origin it may be connected to ÑGAW "howl" (LR:377) if these two stems are both elaborations of a very early element *ÑGA. While the Doriathrin and Sindarin words garm and garaf remained the same, the Quenya word is now ñarmo, removing the clash with harma and pointing to a primitive form *ñgaramô. The ending -ô often denotes an animate; cf. for instance morókô "bear" (LR:374 s.v. MORÓK). - It is possible that Doriathrin garm has a an alternative form *ngarm preserving the original initial nasalized stop; cf. for instance ngold besides gold (primitive ñgolodô).
          garth "realm". In LR:360 derived from a stem 3AR "have, hold", a realm being something that is "held" or possessed by a king. The Sindarin/"Noldorin" cognate is ardh; together these words suggest a primitive form *3ard- with some lost final vowel (*3ardâ?). The cluster rd probably arose by a medial fortification r > rd, unless we are do assume a longer ending -. It seems that in Doriathrin, rd became rdh, changed to -rth finally; the plural form of garth is probably *gardhin rather than *garthin. Compare roth "cave", pl. rodhin instead of **rothin because the original stem was ROD. The form gardh- (garð-) actually occurs in the compound garð-thurian "Hidden Realm" (lit. "realm-hidden") listed in LR:393 s.v THUR (the word is there said to be Ilkorin, but it seems that Tolkien sometimes uses this term to include Doriathrin as well). This seems to suggest that garð- would be the normal form of garth in a compound, though in this case ð simply merged into the following th.
          Garthurian "Fenced Realm" (a name of Doriath) (LR:360 s.v. 3AR) or "Hidden Realm" (LR:393 s.v. THUR). As mentioned above, LR:393 indicates that Garthurian is a compound of garth, gardh- "realm" and an element thurian "hidden". The latter is obviously a kind of past participle based on the stem THUR-, defined as "surround, fence, ward, hedge in, secrete". To explain the ending -ian we must probably assume a primitive verb *thurjâ- with a verbal ending that is very well attested (yielding Quenya -ya); to this verb the primtive adjectival/past participle ending - has been added to produce *thurjânâ, which would probably come out as thurian in Doriathrin.
          gell "sky". Derived from a stem 3EL, simply defined as "sky" (LR:360), said to be confused with EL "star" (cf. LR:355). The Quenya cognate hellë suggests that gell descends from *3ellê, a form showing medial fortification l > ll; the ending -ê may have the same "local" meaning as in ndorê "land" (see dor).
          gelu "sky-blue". Derived from the same stem 3EL "sky" as gell above; the final -u argues the existence of an earlier adjectival ending -, w becoming u after the loss of the final vowel: *3elwâ > *3elw > gelu. Compare hedhu from khithwa and ganu from *3anwâ. Quenya helwa "pale blue" seems to confirm that gelu must derive from *3elwâ.
          gôl "wise, magical" (also ngol preserving the original initial nasalized stop). Derived from a stem ÑGOL "wise, wisdom, be wise" (LR:377). Gôl is evidently a cognate of Quenya ñóla "wise, learned"; the primitive form is clearly meant to be *ñgôlâ with lengthening of the stem-vowel and the frequent adjectival ending -â suffixed. (It is not entirely clear why the vowel ô has become short in the alternative form ngol.) According to the Etymologies, gôl (unstressed -gol) is the second element in the compounded name Thingol, q.v.
          gold "Noldo" (also ngold). (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). The primitive form is given in PM:360 and WJ:383 as ñgolodô (MR:350: ngolodô), derived from the above-mentioned stem ÑGOL "wise, wisdom, be wise" (so defined in LR:377) or "knowledge, wisdom, lore" (WJ:383). The form ñgolodô shows reduplication of the base-vowel (ómataina) and the masculine/animate ending -. The clan-name Noldor [Doriathrin *Goldin] meant "Lore-masters" (MR:350) or "the Wise" (WJ:383) ("but wise in the sense of possessing knowledge, not in the sense of possessing sagacity, sound judgement" - Silmarillion Index entry "Noldor").
          Goldamir "Noldo-jewel" = Silmaril (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). Golda would seem to be the genitive of gold "Noldo" (q.v.); for another example of a genitive in a compound, see Nauglamîr (and probably Eglador). For the second element, see mîr, mir.
          golo "magic, lore" (also ngolo). Obviously derived from the same stem ÑGOL as gold, ngold (q.v.) This word is apparently meant to be the cognate of Quenya ñolwë "wisdom, secret lore" (LR:377). The primitive form would be *ñgolwê, - being an abstract ending. The development would be *ñgolwê > *ñgolwe > *ngolw > *ñgolu > ngolo (> golo). Strangely, -w comes out as -u in other cases, such as gelu (< *3elw < *3elwâ); see also ganu, hedhu. Are we to understand that original - yields -o, while - yields -u? This is difficult to justify in terms of diachronic phonology.
          hedhu (spelt heðu in the source) "foggy, obscure, vague". In LR:364, this word is derived from a stem KHITH (variant KHIS), defined as "mist, fog". The primitive form is given as khithwa (presumably *khithwâ at the oldest stage). The ending -wa, - is adjectival, cf. for instance narwâ "fiery red" from the stem NAR1- "flame, fire". In hedhu, the final -â is lost and the preceding w has turned into a full vowel u; see gelu and evidently ganu for other examples of this. The lost final -â evidently umlauted the i to e before it was lost; compare méd from mizdâ. Initial kh becomes h, as in Quenya and Sindarin; hedhu is our sole Doriathrin example of this. The change of post-vocalic th to its voiced counterpart dh is not universal, constrast for instance umboth "large pool" from MBOTH. Perhaps th in khithwa became voiced by contact with the following w before this voiced consonant turned into a vowel, the -u of hedhu. (As the name Luthien demonstrates, the solution cannot be that intervocalic th regulary becomes dh in Doriathrin.)
          -ion would seem to be the genitive plural ending, cf. region "of holly-trees". Quenya has the same ending; in that language it represents the plural ending -i + o genitive marker + n another plural marker. See WJ:368, 407; cf. LR:360 s.v. 3O. We may assume that the Doriathrin ending has more or less the same etymology. See also -a (the singular genitive ending).
          istel, istil "silver light", said to be "applied by the Ilkorins to starlight, probably a Q[uenya] form learnt from Melian" (LR:385 s.v. SIL). While the stem is given as SIL "shine silver", the derivation is quite remarkable. The initial s of the stem seems to be strengthened to st (in VT39:9, Fëanor is said to have cited examples of initial strengthening involving "the relations between initial st- and s-"). The resulting variant stem *STIL evidently produces istil by means of the "intensive prefix i", that is used "where i is base vowel" (LR:361 s.v. I-). Istel seems to be a mere variant; perhaps the second i became e by dissimilation to the first.
          laur "gold". In LR:368 derived from a stem LÁWAR (LR:368); the primitive form is given as laurê. The ending -ê sometimes denotes substances, cf. primitive words like srawê "flesh" or rossê "dew, spray" (MR:350, Letters:282). It seems that laurê, whence Quenya laurë, properly refers to golden light rather than to the metal gold (which is in Quenya malta, Doriathrin perhaps *malt or *malth).
          líw "fish", in LR:369 derived from a stem LIW, itself undefined. A primitive form is given as *liñwi, showing nasal infixion; the ñ has dropped out in the Doriathrin derivative, but the preceding vowel has apparently been lengthened in compensation. (Compare nîw "nose" from neñ-wi.)
          lóm "echo", in LR:367 derived from a stem LAM, not there defined but cf. WJ:416: "LAMA....refers to sounds, especially to vocal sounds, but was applied only to those that were confused or inarticulate" (LAMA = LAM with ómataina, suffixed base-vowel). The Quenya cognate of lóm, láma, clearly points to a primitive form *lâmâ. For another example of long â becoming ó in Doriathrin, cf. drôg "wolf" from d'râk.
          lómen "echoing" (also lómin). Derived from the same stem as lóm above (or perhaps rather from the noun *lâmâ itself, since ó must descend from long â), primitive form evidently *lâminâ (cf. Quenya lámina). The adjectival ending -inâ, apparently a longer form of the very frequent ending -, is "reconstructed" by Tolkien in a few adjectives (e.g. smalinâ "yellow", LR:386 s.v. SMAL). In Doriathrin, the ending -inâ comes out as -en; the original final vowel umlauted the preceding i to e before it was lost (for another example of A-umlaut producing E from I, cf. méd "wet" from mizdâ). The adjective lómen is also attested in the compound Lómendor *"Echoing land", cf. also the variant lómin (*lâmina with short final -a that disappeared before it could umlaut the i to e?) in Lóminorthin *"Echoing mountains" (LR:367 s.v. LAM, also LR:358 s.v. GLAM; see dor, orth for discussions of the final elements in these compounds).
          luin "pale". Primitive form given as lugni "blue", sc. the stem LUG1 (LR:370, not defined) with an ending -ni not otherwise attested, though -i is an ending found on many primitive colour-adjectives. Notice how g before another consonant becomes i and produces a diphthong with the preceding vowel. (When dagnir, q.v., does not become **dainir, this is evidently because this g is not original, but descends from a k: stem NDAK, LR:375. Cf. the fact that Tolkien changed Luithien to Luthien, realizing/deciding that uk in primitive luktiênê would not become ui.)
          lung "heavy" (cf. Mablung "Heavy-hand"). In LR:370 derived from the stem LUG1, itself undefined, but the primitive form of this adjective is given as lungâ, showing nasal infixion and adjectival -â. We might have expected the original final -â to cause umlaut, so that the Doriathrin form would rather have been *long; compare lost from *lustâ (see Mablost). Examples from Ilkorin suggest that before a consonant cluster beginning in a nasal, umlauts do not occur; this seems to be the case in Doriathrin as well.
          luth "magic"? "spell"? (no gloss given, connected to the name Lúthien "enchantress"). In LR:370 derived from a stem LUK "magic, enchantment"; we are probably to assume a primitive form *lukt- with some lost final vowel (Quenya luhta- "enchant" must come from *luktâ-).
          Luthien "enchantress", Lúthien (Doriathrin form changed by Tolkien from Luithien; see under luin above concerning this alternative form). Derived from a stem LUK "magic, enchantment" (LR:370); the primitive form is given as luktiênê. The ending - is evidently the feminine counterpart of masculine -, while luktiê may be an abstract formation *"enchantment" based on a verb *luktâ- "enchant" (see luth above). Luktiênê may then mean, literally, "enchantment-female", hence "enchantress".
          mab "hand", in LR:371 derived from a stem MAP- "lay hold of with hand, seize"; the primitive form is given as mapâ. When used to derive nouns, the ending -â typically denotes inanimates.
          Mablung "Heavy-hand" (masc. name, the order of the elements is actually *"Hand-heavy"). Mentioned in LR:370 under the stem LUG1; compound of mab and lung, q.v.
          Mablost "Emptyhand" (name of Beren who returned to Doriath without the Silmaril; Sindarin Camlost). In the Etymologies, the word Mablost is mentioned in the entry for the stem KAB "hollow" (LR:361), but while this stem is relevant for the first element in Sindarin Camlost, it has nothing to do with the Doriathrin word. Mablost is transparently a compound of mab "hand" (q.v.) and an adjective lost "empty", clearly to be referred to the stem LUS (itself undefined, LR:370), whence the Quenya word lusta "empty". This High-elven adjective points to a primitive form *lustâ. The original u has become o in Doriathrin, easily explained as the result of an umlaut caused by the original final -â before it was lost (but see lung).
          méd "wet", also -med in Dolmed. In LR:373, méd is derived from a stem MIZD that is not defined, but Christopher Tolkien is undoubtedly right in observing that the stems MISK (yielding words for "wet") and MITH (yielding words for "wet mist" and "grey") are probably meant to be related to MIZD. The primitive form of méd given as mizdâ, the suffix -â being a very common adjectival ending. The z drops out in the Doriathrin word, but the preceding vowel is apparently lengthened in compensation. Notice that z evidently disappeared after post-vocalic d turned into dh (cf. for instance radhon "east" from the stem RAD), or mizdâ would have become **médh instead. Not only the quantity, but also the quality of the stem-vowel changes, i becoming é. This is evidently due to an umlaut caused by the original final -â; compare hedhu from khithwa and contrast míd from mizdê, where the quality of the stem-vowel is unchanged (since -ê does not cause umlaut).
          meneg "thousand" (?) (isolated from Menegroth, q.v. for reference). Concerning the problems with meneg meaning "thousand" if the Elves used duodecimal counting, see the main article above. The element meneg would normally be expected to descend from something like *menekê (final vowel uncertain), but no stem that could produce such a word with such a meaning is known. The stem MEN, yielding words for "place, spot" (LR:372), is probably quite irrelevant.
          Menegroth "the thousand caves" (?). Listed in LR:384 under ROD, compound of meneg and roth, q.v.
          míd "moisture". Derived from a stem MIZD (LR:373); see méd for further discussion of this base. Primitive form given as mizdê; the ending -ê sometimes denotes substances (see laur for examples).
          mîr, mir "jewel, precious thing" (isolated from Nauglamîr and Goldamir, q.v.). Quenya and Old Sindarin mírë points to a primitive form *mîrê; the stem MIR listed in LR:373 is undefined as such.
          morngul, morgul "sorcery" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). For a discussion of the second element, gul, see durgul. The literal meaning of mor(n)gul is transparently "dark lore", "black magic". The element morn- is obviously derived from the well-known Elvish stem for "dark, black", MOR (Letters:382, undefined in LR:373). A Sindarin word morn "black" is listed in LR:373 s.v. MOR (in the published LR, morn is misread "moru"). The Quenya cognate morna points to a primitive form mornâ with the frequent adjectival ending -, and this primitive form is actually "reconstructed" by Tolkien himself in Letters:382. Morngul evidently tended to become morgul; cf. Letters:427, where Tolkien explains that Sindarin Borgil represents born "hot, red" + gil "star" - "the triconsonantal group then being reduced to rg". Similar reductions evidently occur in Doriathrin.
          moth "pool" (compare umboth). Derived from a stem MBOTH, itself undefined (LR:373). Quenya motto and Sindarin both together point to a primitive form *mbottô; it seems that in Sindarin and Doriathrin alike, primitive tt becomes th. It is, however, surprising that initial mb yields m instead of **b. Since nd- yields d- (as in dôn from *ndân-) and ng- yields g (as in garm from *ñgaramô), we would have expected also mb to be denasalized. Instead it is the stop b that is absorbed into the nasal.
          muil "twilight, shadow, vagueness". In LR:374 derived from a stem MUY, not defined as such; the derivatives circle around concepts like hidden, veiled, secret. Muil is evidently the cognate of Quenya muilë "secrecy", pointing to a primitive form muilê. The ending - is typically abstract, so "vagueness" is probably the gloss that best reflects the original meaning; "twilight" and "shadow" are more concrete applications of the underlying abstract.
          muilin "veiled" (in Umboth Muilin "Veiled Pool", q.v. for reference). Adjective derived from the noun muil (see above), primitive form probably *muilina. The adjectival ending -in is also attested in lómin (variant of lómen, q.v.) and in ngorthin (q.v.)
          Nan Dungorthin, Nandungorthin "Vale of Black Horror" (LR:355 s.v. DUN, LR:374 s.v. NAD). Nan "vale" is evidently just a variant shorter form of nand, q.v. Dungorthin is ngorthin "horrible" (q.v. for further discussion) with a prefix dun- "black"; see dunn. Notice that dungorthin seems to be properly an adjective; the literal meaning of Nan Dungorthin would be *"Black-horrible Vale", not "Vale of Black Horror".
          nand "field, valley", evidently to be equated with the shorter form nan "vale" in Nan Dungorthin (see above). Both are derived from an undefined stem NAD listed in LR:374; Quenya nanda "water-mead" would seem to point to a primitive form *nandâ with nasal infixion and the ending -â, here evidently denoting simply something inanimate.
          nass "web". In LR:375 derived from a stem NAT "lace, weave, tie", that is compared to NUT "tie, bind" (LR:378). Quenya natsë points to a primitive form *natsê.
          naugol "dwarf" (naugl- when an ending is added, as in genitive naugla in Nauglamîr, q.v.). In LR:375 derived from a stem NAUK, changed to NÁWAK; these stems were not defined as such. Many years later, Tolkien derived Quenya nauco "dwarf" from a stem NUKU "dwarf, stunted, not reaching full growth or achievement, failing of some mark or standard" (WJ:413); NAUK of the Etymologies can pass as an A-infixed version of this stem. Naugol is said (in LR:375) to be a diminutive form, and we are probably to assume a primitive form *naukle. For a diminutive ending -le, compare nen-le "brook" from the stem NEN referring to water (LR:376); the literal meaning would be something like *"little water". Cf. also the diminutive ending -llë in Quenya ñandellë "little harp" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGAN/ÑGANAD, cf. ñandë "harp"). *Naukle would become *naukl in Common Eldarin, the l probably being syllabic; later a vowel o developed before it. Similar developments are well attested in Sindarin. When the l did not constitute a syllable by itself, as in genitive naugla, no extra vowel intruded before it.
          Nauglamîr "The Necklace of the Dwarves", literally *"Dwarf's-treasure/jewel". (LR:375 s.v. NAUK). Naugla- is the genitive of naugol "dwarf", q.v. Concerning the second element, see mîr, mir.
          Ndolmed "Wet Head" (name of a mountain; also Dolmed, q.v. for etymology) (LR:376 s.v. NDOL)
neldor "beech"; cf. Neldoreth, the name of a forest (LR:376 s.v. NEL, NEL-ED; LR:352 s.v. BERÉTH). The first element, neld, means "three", a word that is not attested independently (but Quenya neldë and Sindarin neledh together point to a primitive form *neledê, that would yield neld in Doriathrin). Tolkien suggests (in LR:376) that neldor is a compound of neld and orn, sc. "three" and "tree" (see orn); it would properly refer to "the great beech of Thingol with three trunks" = the Hirilorn where Lúthien was imprisoned. The name Neldoreth also seems to refer properly/originally to this one tree. The ending -eth may represent the feminine ending -ittâ mentioned in PM:345 (there said to be the origin of the Sindarin ending -eth).
          ngol "wise, magical" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). Also gôl, q.v. for discussion.
          ngold "Noldo" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). Also gold, q.v. for discussion.
          ngolo "magic, lore" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). Also golo, q.v. for dicussion.
          ngorth "horror", in LR:377 derived from a stem ÑGOROTH, also defined as "horror". The corresponding Sindarin word there listed, goroth, indicates a primitive form *ñgoroth-, probably with some final vowel that was later lost. (However, Tolkien in a later source gives the Sindarin word as gorth and derives it from a stem ÑGUR "horror": WJ:415. If we assume a primitive form *ñgurtâ, this might still come out as ngorth in Doriathrin, though it cannot become goroth in Sindarin.) Ngorth probably has an alternative form *gorth, the original initial stop being denasalized; cf. such double forms as ngold / gold.
          ngorthin "horrible" (ÑGOROTH). Apparently meant to be derived from *ngorothina; the adjectival ending -ina occurs in a number of "reconstructed forms", such as ngolwina "wise, learned in deep arts" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). With prefix dun- "black" in dungorthin, see Nan Dungorthin.
          nivon "forward, west". Derived from a stem NIB "face, front" (LR:378; this word is also listed under the stem RAD, LR:382). The ending -on (primitive -ondo) is usually masculine in the Eldarin languages, but here it seems to be simply a noun-former. Some compounds show only the prefix niv- for "west", cf. Nivrim, Nivrost. As for the semantics involved in the derivation of a word for "west" from a stem meaning "face, front", compare LotR Appendix E: "[The directions] W, S, E, N...were, in the Westlands, named in this order, beginning with and facing west."
          Nivrim "West-march", a part of Doriath (LR:378 s.v. NIB, LR:383 s.v. RÎ). Literally *"West-border", sc. rim "edge, hem, border" (q.v.) with the prefix niv- "west"; see nivon.
          Nivrost "West-vale" (LR:378 s.v. NIB, LR:384 s.v. ROS2), sc. rost (q.v.) with the prefix niv- "west"; see nivon.
          nîw "nose" In LR:376 derived from NEÑ-WI, apparently a stem NEÑ with a suffix found nowhere else. NEÑ-WI is simply defined as "nose". The ñ drops out in the Doriathrin word, but the preceding vowel is apparently lengthened in compensation; compare líw "fish" from liñwi. The original vowel e here becomes i. This was probably a change triggered by the following nasal ñ before it was lost; compare kwentro yielding cwindor (in this case, the nasal following e persists).
          orn "high tree" (especially = beech, but as final element in compounds = any tree) (LR:379 s.v. ORO, OR-NI). The stem ORO has to do with concepts like "up; rise; high"; it is compared to "rise" (LR:384; cf. Quenya Rómen "east", sc. the direction where the Sun rises). It seems that Tolkien in Etym intended the primitive form of orn to be *orni (ÓR-NI, LR:379). However, UT:266 gives the primitive form as ornê. Notice that orn is defined as "high tree": UT:266 confirms that this word referred primarily to slender trees, while spreading trees where called galadâ "great growth" (Doriathrin gald).
          orth "mountain", pl. orthin. In LR:379 derived from the same stem ORO as orn (see above); an extended form ÓROT "height, mountain" is also listed, and orth may be referred to something like *orotô (cf. Old Sindarin oroto). When r and t made contact after the syncope, the resulting cluster rt became rth (as in Sindarin - all unvoiced plosives may behave like this after the liquids r, l: cf. UT:265, footnote). - Pl. orthin also occurs in Lóminorthin *"Echoing Mountains" (LR:367 s.v. LAM); see lómen.
          radhon "east", in LR:382 derived from a stem RAD "back, return". The ending -on (primitive -ondo) is usually masculine in the Eldarin languages, but here it seems to be simply a noun-former. Some compounds show only the prefix radh- for "east", cf. Radhrim, Radhrost. As for the semantics involved in the derivation of a word for "east" from a stem meaning "back", compare LotR Appendix E: "[The directions] W, S, E, N...were, in the Westlands, named in this order, beginning with and facing west" - and hence with one's back to the east.
          Radhrim "East-march", a part of Doriath (LR:382 s.v. RAD, LR:383 s.v. RÎ). Literally "East-border", sc. rim "edge, hem, border" (q.v.) with the prefix radh- "east"; see radhon.
          Radhrost "East-vale" (LR:382 s.v. RAD, LR:384 s.v. ROS2), rost (q.v.) with the prefix radh- "east"; see radhon.
          regorn pl. regin, gen. pl. region "holly-tree", also place-name Region. In LR:356 derived from a stem ERÉK "thorn", however, no initial e occurs in the Doriathrin words (contrast Sindarin ereg "holly-tree", Quenya erca "prickle"). The unaccented initial e may have been lost in Doriathrin; however, it is also possible that ERÉK is a basevowel-prefixed version of a simpler stem *REK, and that it is this simpler stem that is reflected in the Doriathrin word. Regorn "holly-tree" means just that, including orn "tree" (q.v.), while pl. regin and region are formed direct from stem.
          rim "edge, hem, border", in LR:383 derived from an undefined stem ; Quenya ríma points to a primitive form *rîmâ with a very frequent ending - used to form nouns denoting inanimate things (usually artifacts, very often implements). Notice that the long stem-vowel î in *rîmâ has been shortened in rim; compare the shortening of the original long vowel in roth < rôda. The word rim occurs compounded in Nivrim, Radhrim (q.v. for reference; these words are glossed "West-march" and "East-march", but is seems that rim does not properly mean "march").
          ring "cold pool or lake (in mountains)". In LR:383 derived from a stem RINGI "cold"; the primitive form would be simply *ringi (cf. Quenya ringë).
          rost "plain, wide land between mountains". In LR:384 derived from the stem ROS2. The primitive form would be *rost- with some final vowel, later lost; no precise etymology can be offered since Tolkien did not define the stem and derived only this one word from it, with no cognates in other Elvish languages. Also attested compounded in Nivrost, Radhrost (q.v.; the latter is translated "East-vale", providing the additional gloss "vale" for rost).
          roth "cave", pl. rodhin. In LR:384 derived from a stem ROD, simply defined as "cave"; Tolkien sketches a development rôda > rôdh > rôth (and eventually the vowel was evidently shortened, producing roth; cf. rim above). Notice that dh evidently cannot occur finally, so it becomes th (but stays dh when an ending is added so that the sound is no longer final, hence pl. rodhin instead of **rothin). Compounded in Menegroth, q.v. - It should be noted that in one late source, the final element of the name Menegroth is said to be groth, representing primitive grottâ, derived from a stem groto "dig, excavate, tunnel" (WJ:414). In Sindarin, groth or roth cannot be derived from a stem ROD, as is Doriathrin roth. Did Tolkien (wishing to keep the long-established name Menegroth) invent a new etymology for the word because he had now come to think of the language of Doriath as merely a form of Sindarin, obsoleting the separate Doriathrin language of the Etymologies?
          Thingol (masc. name). Derived from the stem THIN (LR:392), not defined as such, but it is suggested to be a variant of TIN "sparkle, emit slender (silver, pale) beams". THIN yields words for "grey, pale, evening, fade". This entry in the Etymologies implies that Thingol's name in the primitive language was *Thindô *"Grey One" (primitive form not given as such, but compare Quenya Sindo, Telerin Findo). A form *Thindô would yield Thind in Doriathrin (this is given as an Ilkorin form in LR:392; the term Ilkorin sometimes seems to incorporate Doriathrin rather than denoting an independent language). But according to the same source, Thind was later called Thingol as a compound of Thind (Thin-) and gôl (-gol), the latter element meaning "wise" (see gôl for further discussion). However, Tolkien eventually rejected this explanation of the second element in the name Thingol. In later sources, the name Thingol is interpreted "Grey-cloak" (so already in LotR Appendix A: "Lúthien Tinúviel was the daughter of King Thingol Grey-cloak...") In MR:385, the second element of Thingol (Quenya Sindikollo) is said to be kolla, which is defined as "borne, worn, especially [when used as a noun] a vestment or cloak". (The final -a of kolla is replaced by the masculine ending -o in the name Sindikollo.) It seems that kolla is a Quenya word; the primitive form can tentatively be given as *kolnâ, sc. a stem *KOL "bear" (cf. Quenya colindo "bearer" in Cormacolindor "Ring-bearers", LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308) with the adjectival/past participle ending -. If the masculinized form kollo descends from a word that existed already in the primitive language, this would be *kolnô. While primitive *Thindikolnô would come out as Sindikollo (or *Sindikoldo) in Quenya, it is not certain that this would become Thingol in the Doriathrin of the Etymologies. In Sindarin, which language lenits initial k (c) to g when a word appears as the second element in a compound, *kolnâ or *kolnô would indeed become -gol in this position. Concerning the presence or absence of lenition, there is little evidence either way in the Doriathrin of the Etymologies (see, however, Thuringwethil below), but compare Ilkorin basgorn "round bread" (bast "bread" + corn "round"), showing lenition C > G.
          Thuringwethil "(woman of) secret shadow" In LR:393 derived from a stem THUR- "surround, fence, ward, hedge in, secrete". The first element, thurin (*thurina?) is apparently a variant of Ilkorin thúren "guarded, hidden" (*thûrinâ?) Gwethil would seem to mean "shadow-woman", clearly to be referred to the stem WATH "shade" (LR:397). Notice that as in Sindarin, primitive intial w- comes out as gw- in Doriathrin; but unlike the system in Sindarin, initial g does not become lenited to zero in compounds (under THUR, the Sindarin/"Noldorin" form of Thuringwethil is given as Dolwethil, not **Dolgwethil). The stem-vowel of WATH has been umlauted to e in gwethil; the umlaut would be caused by the i in the ending -il, that would seem to be a feminine ending of some sort (cf. perhaps Quenya -il as in tavaril "female dryad" [contrast masc. tavaron], LR:391 s.v. TÁWAR).
          umboth "large pool", Umboth Muilin "veiled pool" (placename) (LR:372 s.v. MBOTH, LR:374 s.v. MUY; see muilin for a discussion of the second element in this name). Umboth "large pool" would have the same origin as the parallel form both "pool", namely *mbottô (see both). Umboth may seem to include some prefix, but probably it simply represents another development of *mbottô: a form where the m came to constitute a syllable by itself (*m'bottô) and a vowel eventually developed in front of this syllabic consonant. Parallel developments are known from Quenya, Telerin and Sindarin, as when ñgôlê with syllabic ñ becomes ingolë in Quenya, engole in Telerin and angol in Sindarin (would the Doriathrin form be *ungol?) See the entry engole in the wordlist appended to the article about Telerin for references.
          urch pl. urchin "orc". In the Etymologies, the primitive form of this word is given as órku (defined as "goblin"), derived from an undefined stem ÓROK (LR:379). This stem may be understood as a vowel-prefixed variant of the stem ROK "horse", assuming that this originally referred to steed the monstrous "dark Rider upon his wild horse" that haunted the Elves by Cuiviénen, the stem ROK originally being associated with Melkor's creatures. However, Tolkien later derived the Elvish words for "Orc" from a stem RUKU having to do with fear (WJ:389) and listed tentative primitive forms: urku, uruku, urkô. All of these would probably come out as urch in Doriathrin. Notice that as in Sindarin, c becomes ch following r; all unvoiced plosives may behave like this after the liquids r, l (cf. UT:265, footnote).

Ardalambion Index