FG - "Frodo's Greeting", the famous elen síla lúmenn' omentielvo in LotR1:I ch. 3.
Nam - "Namárië", Galadriel's lament in LotR1:II ch. 8, starting ai! laurië lantar lassi súrinen...
EO - "Elendil's Oath", repeated by Aragorn at his coronation, given in LotR3:VI ch. 5; starting Et Eärello Endorenna utúlien...
CO - "Círion's Oath" in UT:305, 317 (vanda sina termaruva etc.)
Markirya - "the Markirya poem" in its final version, as published in MC:221-222.
"SA" refers to the Silmarillion Appendix. A reference like "SA:aglar" means
that the Quenya word (in this case alcar, alkar) is found under
the entry aglar in this Appendix. When the Quenya word is itself the
head of the entry, the reference is simply "SA". From this Appendix it is not
always clear which words are Quenya, which are primitive forms and which are
Sindarin; in such cases, the Quenya words are identified by means of other
sources or (with less certainty) by their style.
In the case of names occurring in the Silmarillion, no other reference than "Silm" is given, since such names can easily be located by using the excellent index provided by Christopher Tolkien.
The spelling is for the most part regularized; the spelling used in the sources is sometimes indicated, e.g. Carmë ("Karmë") "art" (UT:459). While I usually regularize k to c, a few names occurring in the main text of the Silmarillion (such as Ekkaia, Melkor) are left alone.
Terrence Donnelly has made a Text version of this list, including an English-Quenya index, which can be downloaded from his site. (The file is zipped.)
a (1) vocative particle "O" in a vanimar "O beautiful ones" (LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308)
a or á (2) imperative particle: a laita, laita te! "[o] bless them, bless them!", á vala Manwë! "may Manwë order it!", literally *"o rule Manwë!" (see laita, vala for reference)
a (3) "and", a variant of ar occurring in Fíriel's Song (that also has ar; a seems to be used before words in f-, but it is not known whether this idea is valid in mature Quenya)
a- a prefix occurring in the Markirya poem (Tolkien first used na-, then changed it). It is prefixed to verbal stems following a word that is the object of sense-verbs like "see" and "hear" and describes what the object is doing, as in man cenuva lumbor ahosta[?] (changed from na-hosta), "who shall see the clouds gather?" (hosta = "gather").
acúna ("akúna") see cúna
aha "rage", also name of tengwa 11, earlier called harma (Appendix E)
ahosta see hosta
*ahya- "change", only attested in the past tense: ahyanë (PM:395)
ai! interjection "Ah!", "Alas!" (Nam, RGEO:66)
aica "fell, terrible, dire" (PM:347; according to PM:363 seldom applied to evil things), in Aicanáro ("Aika-") "Sharp Flame, Fell Fire", masc. name; Sindarized as Aegnor. (So in SA:nár and PM:345; MR:323 has Aicanár)
aimenal, aimenel - see lirulin
aina "holy", derived from Ainu. Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399, FS, SA)
Ainu "one of the 'order' of the Valar and Maiar, made before Eä"; pl. Ainur attested. Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399). Ainulindalë "Music of the Ainur" (SA:lin #2), the First History (WJ:406)
aiquen "if anybody, whoever" (WJ:372)
airë "holy", airetári or Airë Tári "holy queen" (a title of Varda, PM:363), genitive aire-tário "holy-queen's" (Nam, RGEO:67 - but according to PM:363, airë is the noun "sanctity", while aira is the adjective "holy")
aiwë "small bird" (SA:lin #1); Aiwendil "Lover of Birds" (UT:401)
aiya "hail", as greeting (LotR2:IV ch. 9, see Letters:385 for translation)
Alamanyar name of the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but did not reach Aman; = Úmanyar (MR:163)
alcar (so spelt in CO, otherwise "alkar") "glory, brilliance, splendour" (WJ:369, CO); alcarinqua adj. "glorious" (WJ:412); noun Alcarinquë, "The Glorious", name of a star/planet (SA:aglar - there spelt "Alkarinquë", but the Silmarillion Index has "Alcarinquë". The celestial body in question seems to be Jupiter, MR:435). Also Alcarin "the Glorious", title taken by Atanatar II of Gondor, also name of one of the Kings of Númenor (Appendix A)
alda "tree" (SA, Nam, RGEO:66, LR:41, SD:302), also name of tengwa 28 (Appendix E). Gen. pl. aldaron "of trees" in Namárië. Etymology of alda, see Letters:426. Place-name Aldalómë *"Tree-night" or *"Tree-twilight" (LotR2:III ch. 4); masc. name Aldarion masc. name, *"Son of (the) Trees", (Appendix A). Aldaron a name of Oromë (Silm). Aldúya fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Trees (Appendix D). The word seems to include *Aldu, a dual form referring to the Two Trees. The Númenóreans altered the name to Aldëa (presumably < *aldajâ), referring to one tree (the White) only. The dual Aldu seems to occur also in Aldudénië "Lament for the Two Trees" (a strange form, since Quenya does not permit intervocalic d as in this word.) (Silm)
Almaren the first abode of the Valar in Arda, apparently related to almarë "blessedness" (Silm, LR:357)
alqua "swan" (SA, UT:265); Alqualondë "Swanhaven" (Silm)
Altáriel "Galadriel", "maiden crowned with a radiant garland" (SA:kal; Alatáriel is Telerin)
aman "blessed, free from evil". Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399) Place-name Aman the Blessed Realm, from the stem mân- "good, blessed, unmarred" (SA:mân). Adj. amanya "of Aman, *Amanian" (WJ:411), nominal pl. Amanyar "those of Aman", Elves dwelling there. Also fuller Amaneldi *"Aman-elves" (WJ:373). Masc. name Amandil *"Aman-friend" (Appendix A, SA:mân)
Amarië (fem. name; perhaps derived from mára "good") (Silm)
amaurëa "dawn, early day" (poetic word)
*ambalotsë "uprising-flower", referring to "the flower or floreate device used as a crest fixed to point of a tall [illegible word: ?archaic] helmet". Strangely, the word is asterisked as unattested (WJ:319)
ambar 1. "doom" (variant of umbar?) in Turambar (SA:amarth); instrumental ambartanen "by doom" (Silm ch. 21, UT:138). 2. (capitalized Ambar) "world". Ambar-metta "the end of the world" (EO)
Ambaróna place-name; presumably a variant of Ambarónë "uprising, sunrise, Orient" (LotR2:III ch. 4; compare the Etymologies, entry AM2)
Ambarto *"upwards-exalted", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Pityafinwë = Amrod (PM:353, 354)
Ambarussa "top-russet", alternation of Umbarto, mother-name (never used in narrative) of Telufinwë = Amras (PM:353-354)
ambo "hill", allative pl. ambonnar "upon hills" in Markirya (ruxal' ambonnar "upon crumbling hills")
amilessë "mothername" (amil "mother" + essë "name"), name given to the child by its mother, sometimes with prophetic implications (amilessi tercenyë "mother-names of insight" (MR:217)
amortala "heaving", a participle occurring in Markirya, derived from an (otherwise unattested) verb *amorta- "heave" (literally "up-rise, rise up", cf. orta-; the prefix am- means "up")
ampa "hook", also name of tengwa 14 (Appendix E)
an "for" (Nam, RGEO:66) - but an in the phrase es sorni heruion an! "the Eagles of the Lords are at hand" (SD:290) seems to denote motion towards (the speaker): the Eagles are coming.
Anamo "of doom" in Rithil-Anamo, q.v.
ananta "but yet" (FS)
Anar "sun" (SA:nár; UT:22 cf. 51); anar "a sun" (Markirya); Anarinya "my Sun" (FS). See also Úr-anar. In Anárion *"Sun-son" and Anardil *"Sun-friend", masc. names (Appendix A). Anarya second day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Sun (Appendix D) Anarríma name of a constellation: *"Sun-border"??? (Silm; cf. LR:383, stem RÎ)
anca "jaws" (Appendix E, SA - despite what Christopher Tolkien says in this entry, the Quenya word anca as such does NOT appear in the Sindarin dragon-name Ancalagon, but its Sindarin cognate anc does. See ÁNAK in the Etymologies.) Also name of tengwa 15 (Appendix E). Despite its English gloss, anca is a singular word (in Etym the gloss is indeed "jaw", not "jaws").
ancalima "most bright, brightest", sc. calima "bright" with a superlative or intensive prefix (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation). Fem. name Ancalimë fem. name, *"Most Bright One", also masc. Ancalimon (Appendix A).
anda "long" (as adjective) in Andafangar "Longbeards", one of the tribes of the Dwarves (= Khuzdul Sigin-tarâg and Sindarin Anfangrim) (PM:320); andavë "long", as adverb. (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)
ando "gate", also name of tengwa 5 (Appendix E)
Andórë full form of Andor, "land of gift", name of Númenor (SD:247)
andúnë "sunset, west, evening" (Markirya, SA), also in Namárië: Andúnë "West" (but the standard Quenya translation of "west" is Númen) (Nam, RGEO:66) Cf. andu- in Andúnië, Andúril.
Andúnië (apparently a variant form of andúnë) (place-name, a city and port on the western coast of Númenor, said to mean "sunset"). (Appendix A, Silm, UT:166)
Andúril "Flame of the West", sword-name (LotR1:II ch. 3)
Andustar the "Westlands" of Númenor (UT:165)
anessë "given (or added) name" (encompassing both epessi and amilessi) (MR:217)
anga "iron", also name of tengwa 7 (Appendix E, SA, PM:347), masc. name Angamaitë "Iron-handed" (Letters:347), Angaráto "Iron-champion", Sindarin Angrod (SA:ar(a) ). Place-name Angamando "Iron-gaol", Sindarin Angband (MR:350) Cf. also Angainor the chain with which Melkor was bound (Silm)
anna "gift", also name of tengwa 23 (Appendix E, SA); pl. annar "gifts" in Fíriel's Song. Annatar "Lord of Gifts, *Gift-lord", name assumed by Sauron when he tried to seduce the Eldar in the Second Age (SA:tar)
anta- "give". Several occurrences in FS: antalto "they gave"; strangely, no past tense marker seems to be present (cf. -lto for the ending); antar a pl. verb translated "they gave", though in mature Quenya it would rather be the present tense "give" (pl.); antaróta "he gave it" (anta-ró-ta "gave-he-it"), another verb occurring in Fíriel's Song, once again with no past tense marker. Read something like *antanéros or *antaneróta in mature Quenya? Also antáva "will give", future tense of anta- "give"; read probably *antuva in mature Quenya; similarly antaváro "he will give" (LR:63) should rather be antuváro.
anto "mouth", also name of tengwa 13 (Appendix E)
anwë archaic past tense of auta-, q.v. (WJ:365)
apa- "after", only attested as a prefix in apacenyë and Apanónar, q.v. Variant ep- in epessë.
apacenyë is translated "foresight" in MR:216; yet the context and the form of the word itself clearly indicates that it is actually the pl. form of an adjective *apacenya "of foresight". The noun "foresight" is almost certainly *apacen; cf. tercen "insight". (MR:216) The literal meaning of *apacen is *"aftersight", sc. knowledge of that which comes after. [Essi] apacenyë "[names] of foresight", prophetic names given to a child by its mother (MR:216)
Apanónar "the After-born", an Elvish name of Mortal Men as the Second-born of Ilúvatar (WJ:387)
aqua "fully, completely, altogether, wholly" (WJ:392)
ar "and" (SA, FS, Nam, RGEO:67, CO, LR:47, 56)
Ara-, ar- a prefixed form of the stem Ara- "noble" (PM:344). In Aracáno "high chieftain", mothername (amilessë, q.v.) of Fingolfin (PM:360, cf. 344), Arafinwë "Finarfin" (MR:230)
Araman "outside Aman", name of a region (SA:ar, mân)
aran "king"; pl. arani (WJ:369); gen.pl. aranion "of kings" in asëa aranion, q.v.; aranya *"my king" (aran + nya) (UT:193). Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty" = "your majesty" (WJ:369). In arandil "king's friend, royalist" (Letters:386); Arantar masc. name, *"King-Lord" (Appendix A); Arandor "Kingsland" (UT:165). Other compounds ingaran, Noldóran, Núaran, q.v.
aranel "princess" (UT:434)
Aranwë *"Kingly Person", masc. name (Silm)
Aratan *"Noble Adan", masc. name (Silm)
Aratar "the Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word Máhani adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:402). Aratarya "her sublimity"; Varda Aratarya "Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity" (WJ:369)
aráto "champion, eminent man" (SA:ar(a) )
Arciryas masc. name (evidently derived from *arcirya "royal ship") (Appendix A)
Arda "the Realm", name of the Earth as the kingdom of Arda (Silm). It is said that arda "meant any more or less bounded or defined place, a region" (WJ:402 cf. 413), once translated "Earth" (SD:246). Also name of tengwa 26 (Appendix E). Masc. name Ardamírë "Jewel of the World" (PM:348)
árë "day" (PM:127) or "sunlight" (SA:arien). Also name of tengwa 31. Originally pronounced ázë; when /z/ merged with /r/, the letter became superfluous and was given the new value ss, hence it was re-named essë (Appendix E). Also árë nuquerna *"árë reversed", name of tengwa 32, similar to normal árë but turned upside down (Appendix E)
Arfanyaras, Arfanyarassë a "variant or close equivalent" of Taniquetil (WJ:403)
Arien fem. name, the Maia of the Sun (Silm); cf. árë "sunlight"
Armenelos City of the Kings in Númenor (ar-menel-os(to) "royal-heaven-city"???)
Arnanórë, Arnanor "Arnor", Royal Land (so arna = "royal"?) (Letters:428)
arquen "a noble" (WJ:372)
arta "exalted, lofty" (PM:354)
Artaher (Artahér-) "noble lord", masc. name (Sindarin Arothir) (PM:346)
Artamir "Noble jewel", masc. name (Appendix A)
asar (Vanyarin athar) "fixed time, festival". Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)
asëa aranion "kingsfoil, athelas"; lit. "asëa [foil?] of kings", see aran (LotR3:V ch. 8)
*asta "month", only pl. astar attested (Appendix D)
Astaldo "the Valiant", a title of Tulkas (Silm)
Atalantë "the Downfallen", name of the sunken Númenor (Akallabêth, SD:247, 310; also LR:47). Variant atalantië "Downfall", said to be a normal noun-formation in Quenya (Letters:347). Also common noun atalantë "collapse, downfall", from which noun is derived the adjective atalantëa "ruinous, downfallen", pl. atalantië in Markirya (changed to sg. atalantëa - this change does not make sense, since the adjective undoubtedly modifies a plural noun). Verb ataltanë "down-fell, fell down" (LR:47, SD:247), past tense of atalta- "collapse, fall in" (LR:390; cf. talta, q.v); variant atalantë "down-fell" in LR:56
Atan pl. Atani "the Second Folk", an Elvish name of Mortal Men, the Second-born of Ilúvatar. Cf. also Núnatani (WJ:386). Atanamir masc.name, *"Edain-jewel"? (Appendix A). Atanatar masc. name, "Father of Men" (Appendix A), also common noun atanatar, pl. Atanatári, "Fathers of Men", a title that "properly belonged only to the leaders and chieftains of the peoples at the time of their entry into Beleriand" (PM:324, SA:atar)
atar "father" (SA; WJ:402, UT:193); Atarinya "my father" (LR:70). Diminutive Atarincë ("Atarinkë") "Little father", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Curufinwë = Curufin (PM:353)
atendëa "double-middle", name of the two enderi or middle-days that occurred in leap-years according to the calendar of Imladris (Appendix D, first edition of LotR)
atta "two" (Letters:427); Attalyar "Bipeds" (sg. *Attalya) = Petty-dwarves (from Sindarin Tad-dail) (WJ:389)
atto "father", hypocoristic (LR:59, cf. the stem ATA in the Etymologies)
au- a verbal prefix "off, *away", as in auciri ("aukiri") "cut off" (so as to get rid of or lose a portion); contrast hóciri (WJ:365, 368)
Aulë name of a Vala, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399); Aulendur "Servant of Aulë", applied especially to those persons, or families, among the Noldor who actually entered Aulë's service and in return received instruction from him (PM:366)
aurë "sunlight, day" (SA:ur), locative auressë "in (the) morning" in Markirya
Aurel (pl. Aureldi) = Oarel, q.v. "Elf who departed from Beleriand to Aman" (while the Sindar stayed there) (WJ:363)
auta- "go away, leave" (leave the point of the speaker's thought); old "strong" past tense anwë, usually replaced by vánë, perfect avánië - but when the meaning is purely physical "went away (to another place)", the past tense oantë, perfect oantië was used. Past participle vanwa "gone, lost, no longer to be had, vanished, departed, dead, past and over" (WJ:365)
Auzeldi Vanyarin form (and original form) of Aureldi (WJ:374)
áva, avá (the latter stressed on the final syllable) "Don't!"; ávan "I won't" (also ván, ványë); áva carë! ("kare") "don't do it!" (WJ:371)
ava- (1), pa.t. avanë, not clearly glossed but apparently meaning refuse or prohibit (WJ:370). Cf. Avamanyar.
ava- (2) prefix indicating something forbidden: avaquétima "not to be said, that must not be said", avanyárima "not to be told or related" (WJ:370)
Avallónë Haven and city on Tol Eressëa. In the Akallabêth the city is said to be so named because it is "of all cities the nearest to Valinor", but the etymology is not further explained. Cf. the Etymologies, LR:370 stem LONO.
Avamanyar Elves that refused to go to Aman (= Avari) (WJ:370)
avánië, pl. avánier perfect of auta-, q.v. (WJ:365)
avar "recusant, one who refuses to act as advised or commanded"; pl. Avari Elves that refused to join in the westward march to Aman (WJ:371)
Avathar name of the land between the southern Pelóri and the Sea, where Ungoliant dwelt; said to be "not Elvish" in WJ:404 and must be thought of as an adaption from Valarin; on the other hand, MR:284 states that it is "ancient Quenya" and offers the interpretation "The Shadows". Whatever the case, it must have become *Avasar in Exilic Quenya.
axan "law, rule, commandment". Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)
axo "bone", pl. axor in Markirya
ázë see árë
áya "awe" (PM:363)
caita "lie", also present tense "lies". Sindanóriello caita mornië "out of a grey land darkness lies". (Nam, RGEO:67)
cal- "shine", future tense caluva ("kaluva") "shall shine" (UT:22 cf. 51)
Calacirya "Light-cleft", Calacirya, the great ravine in the mountains of Valinor, the passage leading from Valmar to the region where the Teleri lived. Genitive Calaciryo in Namárië (Nam, RGEO:67)
Calaciryan ("Kalakiryan") "the Cleft of Light", the pass in the Pelóri, apparently a variant of Calacirya (WJ:403, SA:kal-, kir-). Calaciryan, Calaciryandë, "the region of Eldamar (Elvenhome) in and near the entrance to the ravine, where the Light was brighter and the land more beautiful" (RGEO:70)
Calaquendi "Elves of the Light, Light-elves" (SA:kal-, SA:quen-/quet-, WJ:361, WJ:373)
cálë ("kále") "light" (Markirya)
calima see ancalima
Calimehtar masc.name, *"Bright Swordsman" (Appendix A)
Calimmacil masc. name, *"Bright Sword" (for *Calimamacil?) (Appendix A)
Calion, Tar-Calion, the Quenya name of Ar-Pharazôn "the Golden"; Calion would seem to be connected to cálë "light". (Silm)
calma "lamp", also name of tengwa 3 (Appendix E)
Calmacil masc. name, *"Light-sword" or possibly (if haplology of *Calmamacil) *"Lamp-sword" (Appendix A)
calmatéma "k-series" (Appendix E)
Canafinwë "strong-voiced or ?commanding Finwë", masc. name; his Sindarin name was Maglor (see Macalaurë). Short Quenya name Cáno. (PM:352).
cáno ("káno") "commander", usually as the title of a lesser chief, especially one acting as the deputy of one higher in rank (PM:345, SA:káno; PM:362 indicates that cáno originially meant "crier, herald"); "ruler, governor, chieftain" (UT:400) Masc. name Cáno, see Canafinwë
can- verb "order" (give an order) or (with things as object) "demand" (PM:361-362; only the stem KAN is there mentioned)
canwa "announcement, order" (PM:362)
carca "fang" (SA:carak-), pl. carcar ("karkar") in Markirya, there translated "rocks", evidently referring to sharp rocks.
car- "make, do", stem carë ("kare") in the phrase áva carë "don't do it" (WJ:371); carir "form", aorist pl. in the phrase i carir quettar "those who form words" (WJ:391). Past participle carna, q.v. Some doubtful forms in Fíriel's Song: past tense cárë ("káre") "made"; the form carnë (LR:362) is probably to be preferred in mature Quenya. Also *cárië with various suffixes: cárier ("kárier") is translated "they made"; actually it seems to be an augmentless perfect *"they have made", "they" being simply the plural ending -r. The literal meaning of cárielto ("kárielto") must also be *"they made" (cf. -lto).
Carmë ("Karmë") "art" (UT:459)
carna *"built, made" in Vincarna "newly-made" (MR:408). Carna would seem to be the past participle of car-.
carnë "red" (SA:caran), not to be confused with the past tense of car-.
Carnil ("Karnil") name of a star (or planet), identified with Mars (MR:435)
Carnimírië "Red-jewelled", the rowan-tree in Quickbeam's song (LotR2:III ch. 4, SA:caran), also translated "with adornment of red jewels" (Letters:224; where the reading "carnemírie" occurs)
Carnistir "red-face", masc. name, mother-name (never used in narrative) of Morifinwë = Caranthir (PM:353)
Casar ("Kasar") "Dwarf", pl. Casari or Casári, partitive plural Casalli. Adapted from Dwarvish Khazâd. Casarrondo "Khazad-dûm" (WJ:388, 389)
Castamir masc. name, "casta[?]-jewel" (Appendix A)
celumë "stream", locative pl. celumessen ("kelumessen") in Markirya (ëar-celumessen is translated "in the flowing sea", lit. *"in the sea-streams").
Cemendur masc. name, *"Earth-servant" (Appendix A)
cen- ("ken-") "see, behold", future tense cenuva ("kenuva") "shall see" in Markirya. Also cen = noun "sight" as the final element of some nouns (*apacen, tercen, q.v.)
centa "enquiry, essay"; Ósanwë-centa "Enquiry into the Communication of Thought", an appendix to Pengolodh's Lammas or "Account of Tongues" (MR:415, VT39:23); cf. also essecenta, q.v.
Cermië seventh month of the year, "July" (Appendix D)
certa "rune" (pl. certar given), adapted from Sindarin certh (an inherited Quenya form of primitive *kirtê would have been *cirtë). (WJ:396)
cilmë "choosing" (isolated from Essecilmë "name-choosing", q.v.) (MR:214); also in cilmessi ("kilmessi") "self-names", literally names of personal choise (PM:339) (cilmë + essi, hence *"choice-names")
cilya "chasm", allative cilyanna ("kilyanna") "in-Chasm" (sc. "into [the] chasm") (LR:47, 56). In MR:471, cilya is defined as "cleft, gorge".
círa ("kíra") "sail", verb (apparently the continuative stem of *cir-) (Markirya)
cirinci ("kírinki"), sg. *cirincë, a species of birds, "no bigger than wrens, but all scarlet, with piping voices on the edge of human hearing" (UT:169). Seems to incorporate the diminutive ending -incë.
cirya "(sharp-prowed) ship" (SA:kir-, where the word is misspelt círya with a long í; Christopher Tolkien probably confused it with the first element of the Sindarin name Círdan. It seems that Círyon, the name of Isildur's son, is likewise misspelt; read Ciryon as in the index and the main text of the Silmarillion.) Also in Markirya. In the Plotz letter, cirya is inflected for all cases except plural possessive. Compounded in ciryaquen "shipman, sailor" (WJ:372). Masc. names Ciryaher *"Ship-lord" (Appendix A), Ciryandil *"Ship-friend" (Appendix A), Ciryatan *"Ship-builder" (Appendix A); Tar-Ciryatan, name of a Númenórean king, "King Shipbuilder" (SA:kir-)
ciryamo "mariner", nominative and genitive identical since the noun ends in -o already: Indis i-Ciryamo "the Mariner's Wife" (UT:8)
coa ("köa") "house"; coarya "his house" (WJ:369); coacalina "light of the house" (a metaphor for the soul [fëa] dwelling inside the body [hroa]) (MR:250)
coimas "life-bread" = Sindarin lembas (SA:cuivië, PM:395); coimas Eldaron "the coimas of the Eldar" (PM:395)
coirë "stirring", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days (Appendix D), but translated "the first day of Spring" in the Silmarillion Appendix (SA:cuivië)
coirëa "living", coirëa quenya "living speech" (PM:399)
colindo "bearer", in cormacolindor (q.v.)
colla "borne, worn" (past participle of col- "bear"); also used as a noun = "vestment, cloak" (MR:385). Variant form collo "cloak" (SA:thin(d) ) in the name Sindicollo (q.v.), sc. colla with a masculine ending.
coranar "sun-round", solar year (Appendix D; pl. coranári in PM:126)
corma "ring" in cormacolindo "Ring-bearer", pl. cormacolindor (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308); Cormarë "Ringday", a festival held on Yavannië 30 in honour of Frodo (Appendix D)
Corollairë ("Korollairë") see Coron Oiolairë
coron "mound" (SA); Coron Oiolairë ("Koron"), the "Mound of Eversummer" where the Two Trees grew. Also contracted Corollairë (WJ:401)
cuivië "awakening". In Cuiviénen, "Waters of Awakening" (SA:cuivië, SA:nen)
culumalda a kind of tree (SA:mal-)
Culúrien another name of Laurelin; apparently derived from the stem KUL- "golden-red" (Silm; LR:365)
cúna ("kúna") 1) adjective "bent, curved", from which is derived 2) the verb cúna- "bend", occurring with a- prefix (originally na-prefix) in Markirya. Here cúna- is intransitive; we do not know whether it can also be transitive "bend".
curu "skill" in Curufin, Curufinwë, Curunir. (SA)
Curufinwë (so spelt in Silm; "Kurufinwë" in PM) *"Skillful Finwë", a name of Fëanor (PM:343); also the origin of the Sindarin name Curufin; Fëanor named his favourite son after himself. Short Quenya name Curvo. (PM:352)
Curumo *"Cunning One", "Saruman" (UT:401)
Curvo see Curufinwë
Curwë ("Kurwë") "technical skill and invention" (PM:360 cf. 344)
-dil see -ndil
-dur see -ndur
e unidentified word in the sentence e man antaváro? (LR:63), "what will he give indeed?" It may be an adverbial particle "indeed"; on the other hand, one very early "Qenya" text may suggest that it is the pronoun "he", though "he" is also expressed as the ending -ro: *"He - what will he give?"
ëa ("eä") "is", in a more absolute sense (*"exists") than the copula ná (CO); Eä "it is" or "let it be", used as a noun for "All Creation", the universe (WJ:402; Letters:284, footnote)
ëala "being, spirit" (pl. ëalar is attested), spirits whose natural state it is to exist without a physical body, like Balrogs (MR:165)
8 HEIGHT=8> ëar "sea" (WJ:413; see Letters:386 for etymology), pl. ëari "seas" (FS, LR:47); Eär "the Great Sea", ablative Eärello "from the Great Sea", et Eärello "out of the Great Sea" (EO). In names like Eärendil "Sea-friend", Eärrámë "Sea-wing" (SA), Eärendur masc. name, *"Sea-servant"; in effect a variant of Eärendil (Appendix A). Used ="(professional) mariner" (Letters:386) Fem. name Eärwen "Sea-maiden" (Silm)
Eärnil masc. name, contraction of Eärendil (Appendix A)
Eärnur masc.name, contraction of Eärendur (Appendix A)
ecet ("eket") "short broad-bladed sword" (UT:284)
ehtelë "issue of water, spring" (SA:kel-)
Ekkaia name of the outer ocean: for *et-gaya? (Silm)
él pl. éli "star" (poetic word) (WJ:362)
ela! "behold!" (directing sight to an actually visible object) (WJ:362)
elda 1. adj. "of the stars", 2. noun (Elda) = one of the people of the Stars, high-elf (SA:êl, elen), chiefly in the pl Eldar (WJ:362). Gen. pl. Eldaron (WJ:368, PM:395, 402); dative pl. eldain "for elves", for Eldar (FS); possessive sg. Eldava "Elf's" (WJ:407); possessive pl. Eldaiva (WJ:368), Eldaivë governing a plural word (WJ:369). The word Eldar properly refers to the non-Avari Elves only. Compounds: Eldalië "the Elven-folk" (often used vaguely to mean all the race of Elves, though it properly did not include the Avari) (WJ:374; possessive Eldaliéva in the name Mindon Eldaliéva, q.v.), Elda-lambë "the language of the Eldar" (WJ:368), Eldamar "Elvenhome", according to MR:176 another name of Tirion (see tir-). Eldameldor "Elf-lovers" (WJ:412); Eldandil (pl. Eldandili in WJ:412) "Elf-friend" (by the Edain confused with Elendil, properly "Star-friend") (WJ:410); Eldanor "Elvenland", regions of Valinor where the Elves dwelt and the stars could be seen (MR:176)
Eldacar masc. name, *"Elf-head"??? (Appendix A)
Eldarin adjective derived from Elda (Silm)
Eldo archaic variant of Elda, properly one of the "Marchers" from Cuiviénen, but the word went out of use (WJ:362, 374)
Elemmírë *"Star-jewel" (elen + míre, note assimilation nm > mm), name of a star/planet (possibly Mercury, MR:435, where the spelling is Elemmirë); also name of an Elf. (SA:mîr)
elen "star" (SA:êl, elen); pl. eleni (occasionally in verse: eldi) (WJ:362); gen. pl. elenion in the phrase Elenion Ancalima "brightest of stars" (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation); allative elenna "starwards" used as name of Númenor (Silm; see Elenna); ablative pl. elenillor "from stars" in Markirya. Adj. elenya *"stellar" (only defined as an adjective referring to stars by Tolkien) (WJ:362)
elena adj. "of the stars" (SA:êl, elen)
Elendë regions of Valinor where the Elves dwelt and the stars could be seen (MR:176)
Elendil masc. name "Star-friend", "Lover or student of stars", applied to those devoted to astronomical lore. However, when the Edain used this name they intended it to mean "Elf-friend", confusing elen "star" and elda "elf" (WJ:410). (This idea that the name was misapplied seems to be late; Tolken earlier interpreted the name as an ancient compound Eled + ndil; see Letters:386.) Allative Elendilenna "to Elendil" (PM:401); Elendil Vorondo genitive of Elendil Voronda "Elendil the Steadfast" (CO) Pl. Elendili the Númenórean Elf-friends (Silm)
Elendur masc. name, *"Star-servant", probably intended to mean *"Elf-servant"; in effect a variant of Elendil (Appendix A)
Elenna "Starwards", a name of Númenor: Elenna-nórë *"Starwards-land", "the land named Starwards", genitive Elenna-nórëo in Cirion's Oath
Elentári "Star-queen", title of Varda (SA:tar)
Elenwë *"Star-person", masc. name (Silm)
elenya *"stellar" (only defined as an adjective referring to stars by Tolkien) (WJ:362). Elenya, name of the first day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the stars (Appendix D).
Elerossë masc. name, "star foam", starlit foam, Sindarin Elros (PM:348)
Elerrína "Crowned with Stars" (elen + rína), a name of Taniquetil (Silm)
Elessar "Elf-stone" (Elen + sar, actually *"Star-stone", cf. Elendil concerning elen "star" being used to mean "Elf") (LotR3:V ch. 8)
Ellairë alternative name of June, evidently incorporating lairë "summer" (PM:135)
elvëa "starlike, like stars", pl. elvië in Markirya
Elwë masc. name, *"Star-person" (PM:340, WJ:369)
elyë "even thou", emphatic 2. person sg. pronoun (Nam, RGEO:67)
en unidentified word occurring twice in Fíriel's Song; according to the most plausible theory it is an adverbial particle denoting that the action of the following verb took place a long time ago.
en- prefix "re-, again-", in enquantuva "shall refill", entuluva, "shall come again", Envinyatar "Renewer", envinyanta "healed, *renewed", enyalië "to recall" (Nam, RGEO:67, LotR3:V ch. 8, MR:405, UT:317)
*endëa "middle" in atendëa, q.v.
enderi "middle-days", (sg. *enderë) in the calendar of Imladris three days inserted between the months (or seasons) yávië and quellë (Appendix D)
Endien alternative name of "autumn" (PM:135)
Endor "Middle-earth" (SA:dôr), also long fom Endórë "Middle-earth" (Appendix E); allative Endorenna "to Middle-earth" in EO.
enga "save" (= except) (FS)
engwa "sickly"; nominal pl. Engwar "the Sickly", Elvish name of Mortal Men (Silm)
enquantuva "shall refill" (Nam); see en-, quat-
enquië Eldarin six-day week, pl. enquier (Appendix D)
envinyanta "healed" (MR:405), pointing to a verbal stem *envinyata- "heal", litereally "renew"; cf. Aragorn's title Envinyatar "the Renewer" (LotR3:V ch. 8)
enwina "old" (Markirya)
enyalië "to recall", "to commemorate"; dative enyalien "for the re-calling", "[in order] to recall" in Cirions's Oath
enyárë "in that day" (pointing to the future) (FS)
Eönwë name of a Maia, evidently adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:417)
epessë "after-name", nickname, mostly given as a title of admiration or honour (PM:339, UT:266)
equë "say/says" or "said" (a tenseless pseudo-verb used to introduce quotations or a "that"-construction); with affixes equen "said I", eques "said he/she" (WJ:392, 415)
eques pl. equessi "a saying, dictum, a quotation from someone's uttered words, a current or proverbial dictum" (WJ:392); I Equessi Rúmilo "the Sayings of Rúmil" (WJ:398)
Ercoirë alternative name of February (PM:135)
erdë "singularity", the person as a whole (MR:216)
Eressëa "lonely", often used by itself for Tol Eressëa, the Lonely Isle (Silm)
erma "physical matter" (MR:338, 470)
Erquellë alternative name of September (PM:135)
Errívë alternative name of November (PM:135)
Ertuilë alternative name of April (PM:135)
Eru "the One", God, a name reserved for the most solemn occasions (WJ:402), genitive Eruo (MR:329). Compounds: Eruhantalë "Thanksgiving to Eru", a Númenórean festival (UT:166, 436), Eruhin pl. Eruhíni "Children of Eru", Elves and Men (WJ:403; SA:híni), Erukyermë "Prayer to Eru", a Númenórean festival (UT:166, 436), Erulaitalë "Praise of Eru", a Númenórean festival (UT:166, 436), Erusén "the children of God" (RGEO:74; this is a weird form with no plural ending. The normal form seems to be Eruhíni.)
es unidentified word in the phrase es sorni heruion an! "the Eagles of the Lords are at hand" (SD:290); possibly an assimilated form of en, that may function as a kind of deitic particle here: *"Behold the Eagles..."
essë "name", also later name of tengwa 31, originally called árë (ázë). (Appendix E). Pl. essi in PM:339 and MR:470. Essecarmë "name-making" (MR:214, 470), Eldarin ceremony where the father announces the name of his child. Essecenta (-"kenta") *"Name-essay" (see centa) (MR:415) Essecilmë "name-choosing", an Eldarin ceremony where a child named him- or herself according to personal lámatyávë (q.v.) (MR:214, 471)
Estë "Repose" (WJ:403), only used as name of a Valië (WJ:404)
estel "trust, hope" (WJ:318, MR:320)
et "out" (+ ablative: "out of"); ettuler *"are coming forth" (ettul- = et + tul-). (SD:290; read probably *ettulir or continuative *ettúlar in mature Quenya)
Etyangoldi ("Etyañgoldi") "Exiled Noldor" (WJ:374). Sg. probably *Etyangol (*Etyangold-).
ezel, ezella "green" (in Vanyarin Quenya only). Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)
Ezellohar "the Green Mound" where the Two Trees grew; adopted and adapted from Valarin; also translated as Coron Oiolairë, Corollairë (WJ:401)
faila "fair-minded, just, generous" (PM:352)
fairë (pl. fairi in Markirya) "phantom, disembodied spirit, when seen as a pale shape"; also used = "spirit (in general)" (MR:349)
falassë "shore, line of surf" (SA:falas)
falasta- "to foam", participle falastala "foaming, surging" in Markirya
Falastur masc. name, *"Shore-lord" (Appendix A)
falma "(crested/foaming) wave"; partitive pl. allative falmalinnar "on the foaming waves" in Namárië (Nam, RGEO:67). In Falmari, a name of the Teleri, and Mar-nu-Falmar, "Home/Land under Waves", a name of Númenor after the Downfall. (SA:falas) Falmari "wave-folk", a name of the Teleri (PM:386)
fana the "veils" or "raiment" in which the Valar presented themselves to physical eyes, the bodies in which they were self-incarnated, usually in the shape of the bodies of Elves (and Men) (RGEO:74)
fána, fánë "white" (Markirya)
fanya "(white) cloud" (FS); pl. fanyar in Namárië (Nam, RGEO:67)
fanyarë "the skies" (not heaven or firmament - the upper airs and clouds). Note that despite its English gloss, fanyarë is a singular word and therefore takes a singular adjective/participle, as in fanyarë rúcina "ruined skies" in Markirya (see MC:220, note 8 for this translation)
fárëa "enough"; ufárëa "not enough" (FS)
farnë "dwelling", in orofarnë
Fayanáro archaic form of Fëanáro (PM:343)
fëa "spirit" (pl. fëar attested, MR:363). The Incarnates are said to live by necessary union of hroa (body) and fëa (WJ:405). In Fëanor (Quenya-Sindarin hybrid for pure Quenya Fëanáro "Spirit of Fire"), Fëantúri "Masters of Spirits", name of Mandos and Lórien (SA)
Fëanáro "Spirit of Fire", Fëanor (SA:nár)
Fëanturi "Masters of Spirits", name of the two Valar Mandos and Lórien (SA:tur)
fifíru- is evidently the frequentative (see sisíla-) form of fir-; according to MC:223 it means "slowly fade away"; participle fifírula in Markirya (translated "fading")
finda "having hair, -haired" (PM:340)
Findaráto *"Hair-champion", Sindarized as Finrod (SA:ar(a) )
findë "hair" (especially of the head) (PM:340), "a tress or plait of hair" (PM:345)
Findecáno ("-káno") *"Hair-commander"; Sindarized as Fingon (PM:344)
findessë "a head of hair, a person's hair as a whole" (PM:345)
finë "a hair" (PM:340)
Finwë masc. name, apparently displaying the frequent ending -wë suffixed to a stem normally having to do with hair, but the name is obscure (see Tolkien's discussion in PM:340-341)
fir- "die, fade"; cf. fifíru-; fírë "expire"; augmentless perfect fírië, translated "she has breathed forth" (but no explicit element meaning "she" seems to be present) (MR:250, 470)
Fíriel "She that sighed" or "She that died", later name of Míriel (MR:250)
Fírima pl. Fírimar "those apt to die", "mortals", an Elvish name of Mortal Men (WJ:387)
fírimoin "for men", a dative pl. of Fírimor, "mortals, Men", occurring in Fíriel's Song. Tolkien later changed Fírimor to Fírimar, so the dative would probably be *fírimain in mature Quenya.
Firya pl. Firyar "Mortals", an Elvish name of Mortal Men (WJ:387)
Formen "north" (SA:men), also name of tengwa 10 (Appendix E). In Formenos "Northern Fortress" (SA:formen)
Forostar the "Northlands" of Númenor (UT:165)
Fuinur (misprint "Fuinar" in the Silmarillion Index) masc. name, evidently derived from fuinë "shadow" (Silm; cf. the stem PHUY in the Etymologies)
hácala ("hákala") "yawning", a participle occurring in the Markirya poem, derived from an (otherwise unattested) verb *háca- "yawn".
haiya "far" (SD:247)
halla "tall" (Appendix E, footnote)
hantalë "thanksgiving", isolated from Eruhantalë (UT:166)
*har- or hára- "sit", pl. hárar in Cirion's Oath (i hárar "those who sit, those who are sitting")
haranyë last year of a century in the Númenórean calendar (Appendix D)
harma "treasure", also name of tengwa 11, later called aha (Appendix E)
heca! ("heka!") "be gone! stand aside!", also with pronominal suffixes hecat sg. and hecal pl. (WJ:364)
Hecel ("Hekel") (pl. Heceldi, WJ:371) = hecil, but reformed to match Oarel, especially applied to the Eldar left in Beleriand. Helcelmar and Heceldamar *"Land of Forsaken Elves", the name used by the loremasters of Aman for Beleriand. (WJ:365)
hecil ("hekil") (masc. hecilo, fem. hecilë) "one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast, outlaw" (WJ:365)
hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë) "put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon, forsake"
helca ("helka") "icy, icecold". In Helcar, the Inland Sea in the north-east of Middle-earth, and Helcaraxë, the Grinding Ice between Araman and Middle-earth (SA)
hequa "leaving aside, not counting, excluding, except" (WJ:365)
heren "order"; Heren Istarion "Order of Wizards" (UT:388)
Herendil *"Fortune-friend" = Eadwine, Audoin (LR:52, 56, cf. the Etymologies, stem KHER-)
heru (hér-) "lord" (PM:210); Letters:283 gives hér (heru). In names like Herumor *"Black Lord" and Herunúmen "Lord of the West" (SA:heru); heruion evidently a gen.pl. of heru "lord": *"of the lords" (SD:290); herunúmen "Lord-of-West" (LR:47), title of Manwë
hérincë ("hérinkë") *"little lady" (UT:195). Concerning the diminutive ending, cf. Atarincë, cirinci.
Hildor "the Followers", an Elvish name of Mortal Men as the Second-born of Ilúvatar (WJ:387); hildin "for men" (Hildor, the Followers), a dative pl. occurring in Fíriel's Song. Cf. hildinyar "my heirs", evidently *hildë, hildo "follower, heir" + -inya "my" + -r plural ending (EO) Hildórien the land where Men first awoke, like the Elves did at Cuiviénen (Silm)
hína "child", also hina used in the vocative to a (young) child (also hinya "my child" for hinanya) (WJ:403). Pl. híni (surprisingly not **hínar) in Híni Ilúvataro "Children of Ilúvatar" (Silmarillion Index). In compounds -hin pl. -híni (as in Eruhíni, "Children of Eru", SA:híni)
hir- "find", future tense hiruva in Namárië (hiruvalyë "thou shalt find") (Nam, RGEO:67); Hirilondë "Haven-finder", name of a ship (UT:192)
hísië "mist" (Nam, SA:hîth)
Hísilómë "Hithlum" (SA:hîth)
Hísimë eleventh month of the year, "November" (Appendix D, SA:hîth)
hlapu- "blow; fly or stream in the wind", participle hlápula "blowing" in Markirya
hlar- "hear", future tense hlaruva "shall hear" in Markirya
hlókë "snake, serpent", later lókë (SA:lok-)
hloni "sounds" (sg. *hlonë?) (WJ:394)
hloníti tengwi "phonetic signs" (so *hlonítë = "phonetic") (WJ:395)
hó- verbal prefix; "away, from, from among", the point of view being outside the thing, place, or group in thought (WJ:368)
hóciri "cut off" (cut of a required portion, so as to have it or use it) (WJ:365, 368)
hon-maren "heart of the house", a fire (LR:63, 73; this is "Qenya" with genitive in -en, not -o as in mature Quenya)
hondo-ninya "my heart", changed to indo-ninya (FS, earlier version)
hosta "gather, collect, assemble" (Markirya); hostainiéva "will be gathered", future tense of the stative verb *hostainië, derived from *hostaina "gathered", past participle of hosta- "gather". Such stative verbs are probably not valid in mature Quenya; see -ië. (FS)
Hravani "the Wild" (sg. *hravan), name of non-Edain Men (WJ:219)
hrávë "flesh" (MR:349)
hresta "shore, beach", ablative hrestallo *"from (the) shore" in Markirya
hrívë "winter", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 72 days, but also used without any exact definition (Appendix D)
hroa (sometimes "hröa") "body" (changed by Tolkien from hrondo, in turn changed from hrón). Pl. hroar is attested (MR:304). In MR:330, Tolkien notes that hroa is "roughly but not exactly equivalent to 'body' " (as opposed to "soul"). The Incarnates live by necessary union of hroa (body) and fëa (soul) (WJ:405).
hróta "dwelling underground, artificial cave or rockhewn hall" (PM:365)
huinë "gloom, darkness" (SA:fuin), also used for "shadow" = Sauron (LR:56). With prefix nu- "under" and allative ending -nna in nuhuinenna (SD:246); also unuhuinë "under-shadow" (LR:47).
hwermë "gesture-code" (WJ:395)
hwesta "breeze", also name of tengwa 12 (Appendix E); hwesta sindarinwa "Grey-elven hw", name of tengwa 34 (Appendix E)
hyarmen, Hyarmen "south" (SA, SA:men), also name of tengwa 33 (Appendix E). In Hyarmendacil masc.name, "South-victor" (Appendix A), apparently also in Hyarmentir (name of a mountain; the element -tir means "watch[ing point]".) (SA) Hyarnustar "the Southwestlands" of Númenor; Hyarrostar the "Southeastlands" (UT:165)
hyóla "trump" (SD:419)
i "the", indeclinable definite article (Nam, RGEO:67, Markirya, WJ:369, WJ:398; directly prefixed i- in i-mar [FS] and i-Ciryamo [UT:8], with no hyphen in icilyanna = i cilyanna in SD:247). Also relative pronoun: i "the one/they who" (both article and relative pronoun in Cirion's Oath: i Eru i or ilyë mahalmar ëa: the One who is above all thrones", i hárar "they who are sitting"). Before a verb, i means "the one(s) who, the one who, those who": i carir quettar ómainen "those who form words with voices" (WJ:391).
-ië (1) infinitive (or gerundial) ending, attested in enyalië, q.v. (CO)
-ië (2) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië "he is fallen", márië "it is good" (< *númessë "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is probably not valid in mature Quenya: -ië is an infinitival or gerundial ending in Cirion's Oath, for ye "is" we here find ná, and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.
ilca- "gleam (white)", participle ilcala with pl. allative ending ilcalannar ("ilkalannar") in Markirya (axor ilcalannar "on bones gleaming")
Illuin name of one of the Lamps of the Valar; apparently incorporating the element luin "blue" (Silm)
ilm- stem appearing in Ilmen, the region above the air where the stars are, Ilmarë, name of a Maia, and Ilmarin "mansion of the high airs", the dwelling of Manwë and Varda upon Oiolossë (SA)
ilqua ("ilqa") "all" (FS)
Ilquainen ("ilqainen") a word occurring in Fíriel's Song, translated "to all". It would appear to be ilqua "all" with a dative pl. ending, but in mature Quenya -inen is the ending for instrumental pl. (FS)
ilquen "everybody" (WJ:372)
Ilu "(the) world" (FS, LR:47, 56)
Ilúvatar "All-father", God (FS); Ilúvatáren "of Ilúvatar"; in the "Qenya" of Fíriel's Song, LR:47 and SD:246, the genitive ending is -en instead of -o as in mature Quenya. Contrast the genitive Ilúvataro in the phrase Híni Ilúvataro "Children of Ilúvatar" in the Silmarillion Index.
ilúvë "allness, the all". In Ilúvatar "All-father". (SA; WJ:402, MR:471)
ilya "all" (LR:47, 56; SD:310), ilyë before a plural noun, "all" being inflected like an adjective (Nam, RGEO:67): ilyë tier "all paths" (Namárië), ilyë mahalmar "all thrones" (Cirion's Oath)
-ima adjectival suffix. Sometimes it is used to derive simple adjectives, like vanima "fair" or calima "bright"; it can also take on the meaning "-able", as in úquétima "unspeakable" (from quet- "speak"; note that the stem-vowel is lengthened in the derivatives where -ima means "-able"). "X-ima" may mean "apt to X", as in Fírimar "mortals", literally "those apt to die" (WJ:387)
Imbar "the Habitation, = Earth," also "the principal part of Arda" (= the Solar System) (MR:337, also WJ:419 note 29)
imbë "between" (Nam, RGEO:67)
ímen a word occurring in Fíriel's Song, translated "in them" (ar ilqua ímen "and all [that is] in them"). Probably not valid in mature Quenya.
in a strange particle occurring in the phrase i-coimas in-Eldaron "the coimas [lembas] of the Eldar" in PM:403. It looks like the Sindarin plural article, but in Quenya i is both sg. and pl. "the", and the word Eldar does not normally take any article at all. The alternative reading i-coimas Eldaron (PM:395) is probably to be preferred.
-in dative pl. ending, seen in eldain, fírimoin, q.v.
indil "lily", or other large single flower. Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)
indis "wife" (UT:8)
indo "heart"; indo-ninya a word occurring in Fíriel's Song, translated "my heart". Read *indonya in mature Quenya?
-inen instrumental pl. ending. In ómainen (WJ:391)
inga "top, highest point" (PM:340)
ingaran "high-king" (PM:340)
Ingolë "Science/Philosophy" as a whole (PM:360; WJ:383 has ingolë ["iñgole"] "lore")
ingólemo "one with very great knowledge, a 'wizard' ", applied only to great sages of the Eldar in Valinor, like Rúmil (PM:360)
ingolmo "loremaster" (WJ:383)
ingor "summit of a mountain" (PM:340)
Ingwë masc. name, "chief". (PM:340). Pl. Ingwer "Chieftains", what the Vanyar called themselves. Ingwë Ingweron "chief of the chieftains", proper title of Ingwë as high king (PM:340)
-inqua adjectival ending, seen in alcarinqua "glorious" (WJ:412) from alcar "glory". Etymologically, -inqua means "-full", like "glory-full" in this case.
inwisti "mind-mood" (changed by Tolkien from inwaldi) (MR:216, 471)
-ion genitive pl. ending in elenion, Istarion, Silmarillion.
írë "when" (relative, not question-word) (FS)
írima "lovely, beautiful", also pl. írimar; in the "Qenya" of Fíriel's Song, adjectives in -a form their plurals in -ar instead of -ë as in mature Quenya.
Írissë fem. name (PM:345)
Irmo "Desirer", name of a Vala; normally called Lórien, properly the place where he dwells (WJ:402)
Isil "Moon" (FS; SA:sil, Appendix E, SD:302); Isildur (masc.name., *"Moon-servant") (SA:sil, Appendix A); isilmë "moonlight", occurring in Markirya; free translation "the moon" in MC:215 (isilmë ilcalassë, lit. "moonlight gleaming-in" = "in the moon gleaming"); Isilya third day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Moon (Appendix D)
-issë a feminine ending, as in Írissë (PM:345)
Istar pl. Istari "Wizard"; Heren Istarion "Order of Wizards" (UT:388)
ita- "sparkle" (SA:ril, PM:363)
íta "a flash" (PM:363)
itila "twinkling, glinting"
Itaril, Itarillë, Itarildë fem. name, Sindarized as Idril (PM:346, 348; SA:ril)
-iva (-ivë) plural possessive ending in Eldaiva, Eldaivë (WJ:369)
kelvar (sg. *kelva) "animals, living things that move" (Silm)
kemen "earth", referring to the earth as a flat floor beneath menel, the heavens (SA). Kementári "Earth-queen", title of Yavanna. (SA:tar)
kyermë *"prayer", isolated from Erukyermë (UT:166)
-l reduced pronominal affix of the 2. person, "you" (pl.). See heca! (WJ:364)
laica "green" (but all other sources give laiqua) (Letters:283)
Laiquendi "Green-elves", not much used (translated from Sindarin Laegil, Laegelrim) (WJ:385, SA:quen-/quet-)
lairë "summer" (Letters:283), in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 72 days, but also used without any exact definition (Appendix D) Oiolairë "Eversummer"; see Coron Oiolairë. Lairelossë *"Summer-snow", name of a tree (UT:167), perhaps with white flowers.
laita "bless, praise": a laita, laita te! Andavë laituvalmet! ... Cormacolindor, a laita tárienna "bless them, bless them! Long shall we bless them! ... [The] Ring-bearers, praise [them] to [the] height!" (lait[a]-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them) (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308) Verbal noun laitalë "praising", isolated from Erulaitalë (UT:166, 436)
lala- "laugh" (PM:359 - does this obsolete lala- "deny" in the Etymologies, stem LA?)
Lalwendë (also short Lalwen) "Laughing Maiden", fem. name (PM:343)
laman (pl. lamni or lamani) "animal" (usually applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles and birds) (WJ:416)
lámatyávë (pl. lámatyáver attested) "sound-taste" (láma + tyávë), individual pleasure in the sounds and forms of words (MR:215, 471)
lamba "tongue" (physical tongue, while lambë = "language") (WJ:394)
lambë "tongue, language" (the usual word for 'language' in non-technical use) (WJ:368, 394), also name of tengwa 27 (Appendix E); Lambë Valarinwa "Valarin tongue" (WJ:397); Lambengolmor "Loremasters of Tongues", a school founded by Fëanor (WJ:396)
lanta- "fall", lantar present tense pl. (Nam, RGEO:66); lantaner "fell" (pl.) (SD:246); lantier "they fell", a plural past tense of lanta- "fall" occurring in LR:47; read lantaner in mature Quenya, as in SD:246. Also sg. lantië "fell" (LR:56); read *lantanë? Participle lantala "falling" (with locative ending: lantalassë) in Markirya. Noun lantë "fall" in Noldolantë, q.v.
lár "league", a linear measure, 5000 rangar (q.v.). A ranga was approximately 38 inches, so a lár was "5277 yards, two feet and four inches [ca. 4826 m], supposing the equivalence to be exact" - close enough to our league of 5280 yards to justify this translation. The basic meaning of lár is "pause"; in marches a brief halt was made for each league. (UT:285)
lassë "leaf", pl. lassi (Nam, RGEO:66, Letters:283); gen. lassëo "of a leaf", gen. pl. lassion "of leaves" (earlier lassio) (WJ:407); lasselanta, lasse-lanta "leaf-fall", used (as was quellë) for the latter part of autumn and the beginning of winter (Appendix D, Letters:428); hence Lasselanta alternative name of October (PM:135). Cf. also lassemista "leaf-grey" (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in Letters:224), lassewinta a variant of lasselanta (PM:376). See also lillassëa.
laurë "gold", but of golden light and colour, not of the metal. In Laurelin, name of the Golden Tree of Valinor. (SA, Letters:308), Laurenandë "Gold-valley" = Lórien (UT:253) and laurinquë name of a tree, possibly "Gold-full one" (UT:168). Derived adjective laurëa "golden, like gold", pl. laurië (Nam, RGEO:66).
Laurelindórinan "Valley of Singing Gold", an earlier name of Laurenandë (Lórien) (UT:253); laurelindórenan lindelorendor malinornélion ornemalin *"Goldenlight-music-land-valley music-dream-land of yellow-trees tree-yellow", Quenya elements agglutinated in Entish fashion; this supposedly means something like "the valley where the trees in a golden light sing musically, a land of music and dreams; there are yellow trees there, it is a tree-yellow land" (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in Letters:308).
lav- "lick", pa.t. lávë in undulávë, see undu (Nam)
lavaralda (changed from lavarin) some kind of tree (alda) (LR:57)
-lda "your" (sg.), possessive suffix attested only in the phrase Arwen vanimalda "Arwen your beauty", sc. "O beautiful Arwen", and in meletyalda "your majesty" (WJ:369) Arwen vanimalda was changed to Arwen vanimelda in the second edition of LotR, so Tolkien may have decided to re-interpret the phrase as *"Arwen, beautiful Elf (Elda)". The ending for "your" appear as -lya elsewhere; -lda may be used in vocatives only. (LotR1:II ch. 6)
lelya "go, proceed (in any direction), travel", pa.t. lendë (WJ:362)
lendë "left, went" (pa.t. of lelya- "go") (FS, LR:47, SD:310, WJ:362)
lenémë "with leave" (+ gen: "with leave of") (SD:246)
Lenwë the leader of the Nandor (Nandorin Denweg, primitive *Denwego) (WJ:412)
lestanen "in measure", a word occurring in Fíriel's Song, apparently the instrumental form of a noun *lesta "measure", not otherwise attested.
Lestanórë "Doriath", gen. Lestanórëo (WJ:369)
leuca "snake" (Appendix E)
-li partitive pl. ending; genitive -lion in vanimálion, allative -linnar in falmalinnar, q.v.
líco ("líko") "wax" (Markirya comments, MC:223)
lícuma ("líkuma") "taper, candle"
lië "people" in Eldalië (q.v.); possessive liéva in Mindon Eldaliéva (q.v.)
lillassëa "having many leaves", pl. lillassië in Markirya (ve tauri lillassië, lit. *"like many-leaved forests", is translated "like leaves of forests" in MC:215)
lin, lind- "a musical sound" (Letters:308)
Lindar "Singers", what the Teleri called themselves (WJ:380, MR:349, UT:253)
lindë "singing, song" (SA:gond); lindelorendor "music-dream-land"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4, cf. Letters:308)
Lindi What the Green-elves called themselves; also used in Exilic Quenya (WJ:385)
Lindon, Lindónë "Lindon", place-name (WJ:385)
Lindórië fem. name, perhaps *"She that arises in beauty" (compare Melkor "He that arises in Might") (Silm)
-linnar see -li
*linta "swift", pl. lintë (Nam, RGEO:66)
-lion see -li
lírë "song", instrumental lírinen "in [the] song" or *"by [the] song" (Nam, RGEO:67)
lirulin "lark" (MR:238, 262), changed from aimenel, aimenal
lissë "sweet" (Nam, RGEO:66)
-llo ablative ending, "from" or "out of", e.g. sindanóriello "out of a grey land", Rómello "from the East", Mardello *"from Earth" (FS)
*-lma pronominal ending "our", attested (with the genitive ending -o that displaces final -a) in the word omentielmo "of our meeting". This "our" is plural inclusive. Frodo (it seems) improperly used it in the greeting "a star shines on the hour of our meeting": Since he and the Elf he was speaking to constituted only two persons, he should have used the dual inclusive instead. The correct form omentielvo occurs in some of the manuscripts of the Red Book. See Letters:447.
-lmë pronominal ending for inclusive "we", sc. "we" including the person that is spoken to. Exemplified in laituvalmet "we shall bless them" (lait-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them") (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)
loa literally "growth", used of a solar year (= coranar) when seasonal changes are considered (Appendix D; in PM:126 loa is translated "time of growth". Pl. loar, or "löar", in MR:426)
loc- ("lok-") "bend, loop". (May be a primitive stem rather than Quenya.) (SA)
loëndë *"year-middle", the middle (183rd) day of the year, inserted between the months of Nárië and Cermië (June and July) in the Númenórean calendar and the Steward's Reckoning (Appendix D)
loico "corpse, dead body"; loicolícuma "corpse-candle" in Markirya
lókë "snake, serpent", older hlókë (SA:lok-)
lómë "dusk". In Lómion "Child of Twilight [dusk]", the Quenya name Aredhel secretly gave to Maeglin (SA). Otherwise lómë is usually defined as "night" (Letters:308, LR:41, SD:302, SA:dú), cf. lómelindë pl. lómelindi "nightingale" (SA:dú, LR:41; SD:302, MR:172). Derived adjective *lómëa "gloomy" in Lómëanor "Gloomyland"; see Taurelilómëa-tumbalemorna...
londë "land-locked haven". In Alqualondë "Swan-haven". (SA)
lor "dream" (Letters:308; probably just an Elvish "element" rather than a complete word)
Lórellin name of the lake where the Valië Estë sleeps; apparently meaning *"Dream-lake" (Silm)
Lórien (from lor-) name of a Vala, properly the place where he dwells, while his real name is Irmo (WJ:402)
lossë "snow, snow-white" (SA:los)
lótë "flower". In the names Ninquelóte *"White-flower" (= Nimloth), Vingilótë "Foam-flower", the name of Eärendil's ship (SA:loth), also in Lótessë fifth month of the year, "May" (Appendix D)
-lto "they", pronominal suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song (meldielto "they are beloved" and cárielto "they made"), also in LT1:114: tulielto "they have come". Probably not valid in mature Quenya (replaced by -ntë?)
luin "blue", pl. luini (Nam, RGEO:66). In Helluin, name of the star Sirius, and Luinil, name of another blue-shining star (or planet). (SA; Luinil is tentatively identified with Neptune, MR:435)
Lumbar name of a star (or planet), tentatively identified with Saturn (MR:435), evidently connected to lumbo, lumbulë (Silm)
lumbo "cloud", pl. lumbor in Markirya
lumbulë "(heavy) shadow" (Nam, RGEO:67)
lúmë (1) "darkness" (one wonders if Tolkien confused lúmë "time, hour" and lómë "night") (Markirya)
lúmë (2) "hour", allative lúmenna "upon the hour", elided lúmenn' in the greeting elen síla lúmenn' omentielvo because the next word begins with a similar vowel. The complete form lúmenna omentielvo is found in WJ:367 and Letters:424.
lumna "is heavy", a stative verb (LR:47, SD:310; cf. lumna- "to lie heavy" in the Etymologies, stem DUB-)
lúva "bow" (Appendix E)
*-lva pronominal ending, "our", of two persons where one addresses the other (Letters:447). Only attested in the genitive -lvo in the word omentielvo (see -lma). For this reason it has been argued that the ending may actually be *-lwa, since there is some evidence that wo would change to vo in Quenya and the w of *-lwa could be derived from the dual ending -u. (FG)
-lya pronominal suffix "thy, your" in tielyanna "upon your path" (UT:22 cf. 51)
-lyë 2. person sg. ending: "thou", hiruvalyë "thou shalt find" (Nam, RGEO:67)
má "hand", dual *mát "a pair of hands" attested with a pronominal suffix: máryat "his/her (pair of) hands" (see -rya, -t) (Nam, RGEO:67), pl. allative mannar "into hands" (FS). Cf. -maitë "-handed".
Macalaurë ("Makalaurë"), masc. name, the mother-name (never used in narrative) of Canafinwë = Maglor (PM:353); his Sindarin name is seen to be based on his mother-name.
macar "swordsman", in Menelmacar (see menel)
mahalma "throne", nominative pl. mahalmar "thrones" and locative pl. mahalmassen in Cirion's Oath. Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)
Máhan (pl. Máhani attested in WJ:402), one of the eight chiefs of the Valar (Adopted and adapted from Valarin, but usually translated as Aratar) Máhanaxar the "Doom Ring" of Aman; adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)
Maia pl. Maiar "the Beautiful" (MR:49), the lesser (= non-Vala) Ainur that entered Eä. Variant Máyar in PM:363, 364 (is this to be understood as an older form?)
maica ("maika") "sharp, piercing" (SA:maeg)
-maitë "handed" in Angamaitë, morimaitë, Telemmaitë, q.v.
Maitimo "well-shaped one", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Nelyafinwë = Maedhros (PM:353)
maiwë "gull", pl. maiwi in Markirya
malina "yellow" (Letters:308); Malinalda *"Yellow-tree", a name of Laurelin (SA:mal-; evidently malina + alda). The translation "Tree of Gold" in the Silmarillion Index is free; malina means "yellow", not "gold(en)". Cf. malinornélion "of yellow-trees"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4; cf. Letters:308). Malinornélion is partitive pl. genitive of malinornë "mallorn" (UT:167, normal pl. malinorni, UT:168).
mallë pl. maller "road" (LR:47, 56; SD:310)
malta "gold", also name of tengwa 18 (Appendix E)
máma "sheep" (WJ:395)
mamil "mother" (UT:191)
man "who" (Nam, RGEO:67, FS, LR:59, Markirya) cf. PM:357 note 18, where a reference is made to the Eldarin interrogative element ma, man). However, man is translated "what" in LR:59. Either Tolkien later adjusted the meaning of the word, or it covers both "who" and "what".
Man-ië? "What is it?" (LR:59; the stative-verb suffix -ië is hardly valid in mature Quenya)
mána "blessed" (FS)
mana a word translated "what is" in the sentence mana i-coimas Eldaron[?] "what is the coimas (lembas) of the Eldar?" (PM:395, a variant reading in PM:402) Either it is *ma "what" + ná "is", or mana may itself be a unitary word "what", and there is not really any word meaning "is" in the sentence.
mando "custody, safe keeping" (MR:350) or "prison, duress" (in Mandos) (SA:band)
Mandos (Mandost-) "Castle of Custody" (the approximate meaning, according to MR:350) Used as the name of a Vala, properly the place where he dwells (the Halls of Mandos), while his real name is Námo (WJ:402)
manen "how" (PM:395)
mannar "into (the) hands", allative pl. of má. (FS)
Manwë "Blessed Being" (Letters:283), adopted from Valarin Mânawenûz; names ending in -wë were already frequent in Quenya (WJ:399). Cf. Mánwen, Mánwë the oldest Quenya forms of Manwë, closer to the Valarin form (WJ:399). Lower-case manwë in LR:56.
maquet- *"ask", only attested in the past tense: maquentë (PM:403)
mar "earth", ablative Mardello "from earth" (FS). May be more or less identical with már "home, house" (of persons or peoples; in names like Val(i)mar, Vinyamar, Mar-nu-Falmar, Mardil) (SA:bar)
mar- "abide, be settled or fixed" (UT:317); maruvan "I will abide" (mar-uva-n "abide-will-I") (EO)
*mardë "hall"; only pl. mardi is attested (Nam, RGEO:66)
Mar-nu-Falmar "Home under Waves", name of the sunken Númenor (Silm)
Mardil masc. name, "(one) devoted to the house", sc. of the kings (Appendix A; interpreted in Letters:386)
márië "it is good" (FS; from mára "good"; the stative-verb suffix -ië is hardly valid in mature Quenya)
massánië "breadgiver", used as a title of the highest woman among any Elvish people, since she had the keeping and gift of the coimas (lembas). Also simply translated "Lady" (PM:404)
masta "bread" (PM:404)
*mbelekôro is mentioned as "the oldest Q form" of Melkor; this is obviously a form that belongs to Common Eldarin rather than Quenya as we know it; note that it is asterisked as unattested (WJ:402)
me "us"; mel-lumna "us-is-heavy", sc. *"is heavy for us" (LR:47, mel- is evidently an assimilated form of *men "for us", dative of me); dual met "us (two)"
melánë "I love", a doubtful word in mature Quenya; read perhaps *mélanyë (LR:70)
Melcor (so spelt in MR:362) see Melkor
meldielto "they are beloved" (sc. meld[a]-ië-lto "beloved-are-they" - both the stative verb ending -ië "is/are" and the ending -lto "they" may be obsolete in mature Quenya) (FS)
meletyalda "your mighty" = "your majesty" (see -lda; meletya = *"mighty"). In full Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty" (WJ:369)
Melko "Mighty One", name of the rebellious Vala, usually called Melkor (FS; MR:350 confirms that the form Melko is still valid in mature Quenya)
Melkor (spelt Melcor in MR:362), the rebellious Vala, the devil of the Silmarillion mythos. Older form Melkórë "Mighty-rising" (hence the interpretation "He that arises in power"). Oldest form *mbelekôro (WJ:402). Melkorohíni "Children of Melkor", Orcs ("but the wiser say: nay, the slaves of Melkor; but not his children, for Melkor had no children") (MR:416)
men (1) "way" (SA)
men (2) "who", evidently a misreading or miswriting for man (MC:221, in Markirya)
ménë "on us" (SD:310)
Menel "heavens" (Markirya, SA), "the apparent dome in the sky" (MR:387). In names like Meneldil *"Heaven-friend" = astronomer (Appendix A; Letters:386), Meneldur masc. name, *"Heaven-servant" (Appendix A); Menelmacar "Swordsman of the Sky", the Orion constellation (also called Telumehtar, Appendix E, first footnote); the older name was Menelmacil *"Heaven-sword" (WJ:411); Meneltarma "Pillar of Heaven", name of the great mountain of Númenor (SA:tar). Menelya fifth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the heavens (Appendix D)
met "us (two)", including the dual ending -t. Me (LR:56) evidently means "we".
Metelairë alternative name of August (PM:135)
Meterrívë alternative name of January (PM:135)
métima "last" (Markirya), in Markirya also twice métim', since the following words (auressë, andúnë) begin in an a.
metta "end"; Ambar-metta "world-end, the end of the world" (EO); mettarë *"end-day" = New Years' Eve in the Númenórean calendar and the Steward's Reckoning, not belonging to any month (Appendix D)
mí "in the" (Nam, RGEO:66; CO gives mi; the correct forms should evidenly be mi = "in" and mí = mi i "in the")
Minalcar masc. name, *"First-glory"??? (Appendix A)
Minardil masc.name *"minar[?]-friend". Perhaps minar is to be understood as a variant of minas (s being voiced to z by contact with the voiced plosive that follows, and then regularly becoming r); if so, the name means *"Tower-friend" (Appendix A)
Minastan masc.name, *"Tower-maker" (Appendix A)
Minastir masc. name, *"Tower-watcher" (Appendix A)
mindon "(great, lofty) tower", allative pl. mindoninnar in Markirya, changed to the contracted form mindonnar. Cf. also Mindon Eldaliéva "Lofty Tower of the Eldalië" (Silm)
Minnónar "First-born", Elves (as contrasted to Apanónar, the After-born, Men). Sg. *Minnóna (WJ:403)
Mindolluin *"Blue Tower" (mindon + luin), name of a mountain. (Christopher Tolkien translates the name as "Towering Blue-head" in the Silmarillion Index, but this seems to be based on the questionable assumption that it includes the Sindarin element dol "head, hill". Unless this translation is given in his father's papers, the name is better explained as a Quenya compound.)
minya "first" (see Minyatur); Minyar "Firsts", the original name of the Vanyar (or rather the direct Quenya descendant of the original Primitive Quendian name) (WJ:380)
Minyatur "First-ruler"; Tar-Minyatur "High First-ruler", title of Elros as the first King of Númenor (SA:minas, PM:348, SA:tur)
mírë "jewel" (SA:mîr). Cf. Elemmírë; short form -mir in Tar-Atanamir. (SA:mîr)
Míriel *"Jewel-woman" (Silm), genitive Míriello (see namna)
miruvor, full form miruvórë "meed", "a special wine or cordial"; possessive miruvóreva "of meed" (Nam, RGEO:66; WJ:399)
mirroanwi "incarnates, those (spirits) 'put into flesh' " (MR:350)
mista "grey"; see lassemista
Mittalmar the "Midlands" of Númenor (UT:165)
-mmë pronominal ending, exclusive "we", seen in vammë "we won't" (WJ:371)
-mo ending frequent in names and titles, sometimes with an agental significance (WJ:400)
mor "darkness" (Letters:308; probably just an Elvish "element" rather than a complete word; Namárië has mornië for "darkness")
morë "dark, darkness" (Letters:282); morimaitë "black-handed" (LotR3:VI ch. 6). Moriquendi "Dark Elves" (SA:mor, WJ:373). Moringotto "Black Foe", Sindarin Morgoth. The oldest form is said to have been Moriñgotho (MR:194). Morion "the dark one", a title of Morgoth (FS). Morifinwë "dark Finwë", masc. name; he was called Caranthir in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Moryo. (PM:353)
morna "dark, black" in tumbalemorna (Letters:282); pl. mornë in Markirya (the first version of this poem had "green rocks", MC:215, changed to ondolisse mornë "upon dark rocks" in the final version; see MC:220, note 8)
mornië "darkness" (Nam, RGEO:67)
Morquendi "Dark-elves" (WJ:361)
Moryo see Morifinwë
mundo "bull" (Letters:422)
-n (1) dative ending, in nin, enyalien
-n (2) or -nye pronominal ending, 1. person sg. "I". Utúlien "I am come" (EO)
-n (3) a plural sign used in some of the cases (WJ:407)
ná "is" (Nam, RGEO:67). See also nai.
na- a prefix occurring in the Markirya poem, changed to a-, q.v.
nahamna untranslated word occurring in LR:47 (= nucumna "humbled" in SD:246, cf. SD:290, end of note 59)
Nahar the name of Oromë's horse, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:401)
nai "be it that", used with a future tense-verb to express a wish. The translation "maybe" in Tolkien's rendering of Namárië is somewhat misleading; he used "be it that" in the interlinear translation in RGEO:67. Nai hiruvalyë Valimar! Nai elyë hiruva! *"May thou find Valimar. May even thou find it!" (Nam). Nai tiruvantes "be it that they will guard it" > "may they guard it" (CO)
Naira "Heart of Flame", a name of the Sun (MR:198)
Ñaltariel true Quenya form of Galadriel; the form actually used was Altariel, Quenyarized from Telerin Alatáriel(lë). (PM:347)
namárië "farewell" (Nam, RGEO:67)
Námo (1) "Judge", name of a Vala, normally called Mandos, properly the place where he dwells (WJ:402), (2) námo "a person, somebody" (PM:340)
namna "statute"; Namna Finwë Míriello "the Statute of Finwë and Míriel" (MR:258)
nan "but" (FS)
nandë "valley" in Laurenandë (UT:253); also nan, nand- "valley" (Letters:308); Nan-Tasarion "Vale of Willows" (LotR2:III ch. 4)
Nandor name of the Green-elves (Laiquendi); the original word *ndandô implied "one who goes back on his word or decision", since the Nandor left the March from Cuiviénen to Aman. Adj. Nandorin. (WJ:412)
Nárië sixth month of the year, "June" (Appendix D)
Narmacil masc. name, *"Flame-sword" (Appendix A)
Narquelië tenth month of the year, "October" (Appendix D); the word seems to mean "Fire-waning", "Sun-waning". Compare narquelion ("narqelion") "Fading" in Fíriel's Song.
Narsil the sword of Elendil, compound of the stems seen in Anar "Sun" and Isil "Moon"; see Letters:425 for etymology
Narsilion "(the song) of the Sun and Moon"; actually the stems of the words for Sun and Moon compounded (see Narsil above) and a plural genitive ending added (Silm)
Narvinyë first month of the year, "January". The word seems to mean "New Fire/Sun". (Appendix D)
Narya name of the Red Ring, the Ring of Fire; apparently an adjective meaning something like "Fiery (One)" (SA:nár)
nasar "red" (in Vanyarin Quenya only). Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)
nauca ("nauka") adjective especially applied to things that though in themselves full-grown were smaller or shorter than their kind, and were hard, twisted or ill-shapen (WJ:413)
Nauco ("Nauko") "Dwarf"; Naucalië (not *Naucolië) the "Dwarf-people" as a whole. From nauca. See also Picinaucor (WJ:388)
Návarot "Nogrod" (< Novrod), Hollowbold, a dwelling of the Dwarves (WJ:389)
-ndil (also -dil) ending in many names, like Amandil, Eärendil; it implies devotion or disinterested love and may be translated "friend" (SA:(n)dil); this ending is "describing the attitude of one to a person, thing, course or occupation to which one is devoted for its own sake" (Letters:386)
-ndor "land" in compounds (Letters:308, UT:253)
-ndur (also -dur) ending in some names, like Eärendur; as noted by Christopher Tolkien in the Silmarillion Appendix it has much the same meaning as -ndil "friend"; yet -ndur properly means "servant of" (SA:(n)dil), "as one serves a legitimate master: cf. Q. arandil king's friend, royalist, beside arandur 'king's servant, minister'. But these often coincide: e.g. Sam's relation to Frodo can be viewed either as in status -ndur, in spirit -ndil." (Letters:286)
néca "pale, vague, faint, dim to see", pl. nécë ("néke") in Markirya
nehta "spearhead", isolated from nernehta, q.v.
nehtë any formation or projection tapering to a point: a spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow promontory (UT:282)
neldë "three" (SA:neldor)
nelya "third" in Nelyar "Thirds", the original name of the Teleri (or rather the direct Quenya descendant of the original Primitive Quendian name) (WJ:380); Nelyafinwë "Finwë third" (after the original Finwë and Curufinwë = Fëanor), masc. name; he was called Maedhros in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Nelyo. (PM:352)
Nelyo see Nelyafinwë under nelya
Nénar name of a star (or planet), evidently derived from nén "water" (Silm), tentatively identified with Uranus (MR:435)
Nendili "Water-lovers", the most frequently used "title" or secondary name of the Lindar (WJ:411)
Nénimë second month of the year, "February" (Appendix D)
Nenya name of the Blue Ring, apparently an adjective meaning something like "Watery (One)" (SA:nen)
nér pl. neri "man" (MR:213), nernehta "man-spearhead", a battle-formation (UT:282)
Nessa name of a Valië, the spouse of Tulkas (adopted and adapted from Valarin, OR an archaic Elvish formation) (WJ:404 vs. 416); nessamelda "Nessa-beloved", name of a tree (UT:167)
ngoldo see noldo
ngwalmë see nwalmë
ni "I", dative nin "for me" (Nam, RGEO:67)
nicu- ("niku-") "be chill, cold (of weather)" (WJ:417)
nillë (ñillë") a star-imagine on Nur-menel (q.v.), from a stem ngil- "silver glint" (MR:388)
nin "to me", dative (FS)
-nil = -ndil in Eärnil, contraction of Earendil
ninquë "white, chill, palid" (WJ:417, SA:nim), pl. ninqui in Markirya; Ninquelótë "Nimloth", lit. *"White-Flower" (SA:nim), = Sindarin Nimloth, the White Tree of Númenor
ninya an element occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently meaning "my"; see indo-ninya. May not be valid in mature Quenya, that has the ending -nya for "my".
Nísimaldar "Fragrant trees", a region in Númenor (UT:167; evidently *nísima "fragrant" + aldar "trees").
niquë "it is cold, it freezes" (WJ:417)
niquis "frost-patterns", also niquessë by association with quessë "feather" (WJ:417)
nís pl. nissi "woman" (MR:213)
Nísinen *"Fragrance-water", a lake in Númenor (UT:168)
nixë "frost" (WJ:417)
-nna "to, upon", allative ending in cilyanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, Elenna, númenna, númenórenna, rómenna, tielyanna, q.v. Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.
Nócoirë alternative name of March (PM:135)
Noirinan the "Valley of the Tombs" in Númenor (evidently *noirë, *noiri- "tomb" + nan "valley") (UT:166)
Nólairë alternative name of July (PM:135)
noldo "one of the people of the Noldor", also name of tengwa 19. Originally pronounced ngoldo (also spelt ñoldo by Tolkien); initial ng had become n in Third Age pronunciation (Appendix E). Pl. Noldor ("Ñoldor"), "the Wise", name of the second clan of the Eldar (WJ:380, 381) Noldóran (Ñoldóran") "King of the Noldor" (PM:343; evidently noldo + aran); Noldolantë "the Fall of the Noldor" (name of a song) (Silm)
nólë "long study (of any subject), lore, knowledge" (SA:gûl, also WJ:383 and MR:350, there spelt ñóle)
Nolmë ("Ñolmë") "knowledge, Philosophy (including Science)" (PM:360 cf. 344)
nolmo ("ñolmo") "wise person" (PM:360)
Nolofinwë ("Ñolofinwë") "Fingolfin" (PM:344)
Nóquellë alternative name of October (PM:135)
nór "land" (as opposed to sea; nor in Letters:308); nórë "land" (associated with a particular people) (WJ:413), also used = "people" (SA:dôr; the normal word for "people" is lië)
*nórië "country", in sindanórië (see sinda) (Nam, RGEO:67)
norna "stiff, tough" (WJ:413)
Norno "dwarf"; a personalized form of the adjective norna (WJ:413); Nornalië (not *Nornolië) the "Dwarf-people" as a whole (WJ:388)
Norrívë alternative name of December (PM:135)
nossë "kindred, family" (PM:320)
nostari "parents", pl. of *nostar or *nostaro "parent" (LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308)
nótina "counted" (FS), past participle of not- "count", also glossed "reckon" (see the stem NOT- in the Etymologies)
Nótuilë alternative name of May (PM:135)
-ntë pronomimal ending, inflexion of 3 plural ("they") when no subject is previously mentioned (CO)
nu "under" (LR:56, Markirya, Nam, RGEO:66)
Núaran *"West-king"; Núaran Númenoren *"West-king of Númenor"; changed (according to LR:71) to Núraran Númenen, *"West-king of the West" (all of this is "Qenya" with genitive in -n instead of -o, as in mature Quenya) (LR:60)
nucumna ("nukumna") "humbled" (SD:246)
nuhta- "stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue" (WJ:413)
nuhuinenna "under shadow" (allativic) (SD:246); see huinë.
númeheruen *"of the Lord of the West" (Manwë) (SD:290); this is "Qenya" with genitive in -en instead of -o as in mature Quenya
númeheruvi "Lords-of-West" (*"West-lords") in SD:246
númë "going down, occident" (Letters:361); apparently meaning "west" in númeheruen and numeheruvi
númen "the way of the sunset, west" (SA:andúnë, capitalized Númen under SA:men and in CO), "going down, occudent" (Letters:361), also name of tengwa 17 (Appendix E). Allative númenna "Westward" (LR:47, SD:310) See also númenyaron, númessier.
Númen(n)órë "people of the west", confused with Númendor "land of the west" (SA:dôr); hence Númenor as the name of the great isle given to the Edain by the Valar (FS, LR:56); full form Númenórë (LR:47, SD:247), allative númenórenna "to Númenor" (LR:56)
Númendor "land of the west", confused with and replaced by Númen(n)órë "people of the west" (SA:dôr)
númenyaron a word occurring in a phrase from an earlier version of Fíriel's Song, Valion númenyaron, "of the Lords [Valar] of the West". But númenyaron cannot simply mean "of the West"; it seems to be the plural genitive of númenya "western", hence literally *"of the western (things, persons, realms)" or "of the Westerners".
Númerrámar "West-wings", name of a ship (Númen + rámar, note assimilation nr > rr) (UT:175)
númessier "they are in the west", a construction occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently núme(n)-ssë-ie-r "west-in-are-they"; see -ië. (FS)
Númevalion *"of the West-powers" (SD:290); cf. Valion
Núnatani "Western Men" = Sindarin Dúnedain (WJ:386)
Nunduinë *"West-flow", name of a river in Númenor (UT:168)
Nur-menel the lesser firmament, a great dome covering Valinor, made by Varda and full of star-imagines (see tinwë, nillë). It was a simulacrum of Tar-menel, the true firmament (MR:388)
nurtalë "hiding" (evidently a verbal stem *nurta- "hide" with the verbal noun ending -lë); Nurtalë Valinóreva "the Hiding of Valinor" (Silm)
nuquerna "reversed", or perhaps rather *"turned upside down". In the phrases silmë nuquerna and árë nuquerna, q.v.
nurru- "murmur, grumble"; participle nurrula in Markirya, changed to nurrua, perhaps a kind of verbal adjective of the same meaning (translated "mumbling" in MC:215)
nuruhuinë "death-shadow" (LR:47, 56, SD:310)
nwalmë "torment", also name of tengwa 20. Originally pronounced ngwalmë; initial ng had become n in Third Age pronunciation (Appendix E)
-nya pronominal suffix, 1. person sg. possessive, "my", e.g. tatanya "my father" (UT:191). This ending seems to prefer i as its connecting vowel where one is needed, cf. Anarinya "my sun" in LR:72, so also in hildinyar.
-nyë pronominal suffix "I"; also short form -n. In utúvienyes (see tuv-)
o a word for "and" occurring solely in SD:246; all other sources give ar
-o genitive ending, in Oromëo, Elenna-nórëo, Rithil-Anamo, Rúmilo, Lestanórëo, q.v. Pl. -ion and -ron, q.v.
-o, -ó "a person, somebody", pronominal suffix, later replaced by námo (PM:340)
ó- (usually reduced to o- when unstressed) a prefix "used in words describing the meeting, junction, or union of two things or persons, or of two groups thought of as units". In omentië, ónoni, ónona (WJ:367)
oa, oar ("öa, öar") adverbs, not clearly glossed but apparently meaning "away" (WJ:365)
oantë "went away (to another place)"; past tense of auta-. Also perfect oantië. (WJ:365)
Oarel ("Oärel") pl. Oareldi "Elf who departed from Beleriand to Aman" (while the Sindar stayed there) (WJ:363, 374)
Oazeldi Vanyarin (and original) form of Oareldi (WJ:374)
ohtacárë (-"káre") "war-made", made war (+ allative = make war upon) (LR:47, SD:246; ohtacárië in LR:56). The past tense is probably *ohtacarnë in mature Quenya. Noun ohtar "warrior, soldier" (UT:282)
oialë "everlastingly" (Nam, RGEO:67)
oiencarmë Eruo (-"karmë") "the One's [Eru's] perpetual production", free rendering "God's management of the Drama" (MR:471)
oio "an endless period" (CO) or "ever" (SA:los). Oiolairë "Ever-summer" (name of a tree, UT:167; also in the name Coron Oiolairë, "Mound of Ever-summer", assimilated corol- in the contraction Corollairë) (SA:coron); Oiolossë "Everwhite, Ever-snowwhite", a name of Taniquetil, hence the translation "Mount Everwhite" in Tolkien's rendering of Namárië. See also SA:los. Explicit "mount" in Oron Oiolossë "Mount Everwhite" (WJ:403). Ablativic genitive Oiolossëo "from Mount Everwhite" in Namárië (Nam, RGEO:67)
Oiomúrë place-name; *"Ever-?mist" (Silm)
óla- "to dream" (said to be "impersonal", probably meaning that the dreamer is mentioned in the dative rather than the nominative) (UT:396)
olassië "collection of leaves, foliage" (Letters:283)
olba "branch" (PM:340; the variant *olva may be more frequent; olba can only occur in the Quenya variant that uses lb for lv. The Etymologies, stem GÓLOB, has olwa.)
olos "dream, vision" (pl. olori from earlier olozi) (UT:396)
Olórin name of the Maia that became Gandalf, connected to olos (UT:396)
olosta "dreamy" (UT:396)
olvar (sg. *olva) "growing things with roots in the earth, *plants" (Silm)
Olwë masc. name (PM:340), difficult interpret (PM:341)
óma "voice"; *ómarya "his/her voice"; genitive ómaryo "of his/her voice" (Nam, RGEO:67). Instrumental pl. ómainen "with voices" (WJ:391). Óma also seems to mean "vowel", seen in the compounds ómataina "vocalic extension", the addition to the base a final vowel identical to the stem-vowel (sundóma) (WJ:371, 417), ómatehtar "vowel-signs", signs used for vowels (usually called simply tehtar, strictly including all kinds of diacritics) (WJ:396)
omentië "meeting" (meeting or junction of the directions of two people) (WJ:367), *omentielva "our meeting", only attested in the genitive: omentielvo "of our meeting". See -lva. Concerning the alternative reading omentielmo, see -lma.
-on gen.pl. ending, in Silmarillion, Valion, aldaron, aranion, tasarion (see Nan-Tasarion), Númevalion, Sindaron, Istarion, Ingweron, Quendion, Eldaron.
ondo "stone" (UT:459) in Ondolindë "Gondolin" (SA:gond); pl. ondor in an earlier variant of Markirya; partitive pl. locative ondolissë "on rocks" in the final version; Ondoher masc.name, *"Stone-lord" (ondo alluding to Gondor, "stone-land") (Appendix A)
onóna (1) adj. "twin-born"; (2) noun "one of a pair of twins"; pl. onóni "twins" (WJ:367)
onya *"my son" (not the normal word for "son", however - it seems to be derived from the stem ONO "beget") (UT:174)
orco ("orko") "Orc", pl. orcor or orqui (WJ:390; pl. Orcor in MR:74)
órë "heart" (inner mind), also name of tengwa 21. (Appendix E) Cf. the description of Galadriel in PM:337, that "there dwelt in her the noble and generous spirit (órë) of the Vanyar". Here Tolkien may seem to imply that the órë is (what defines) a person's deepest personality. In one late source, an abortive essay published in VT41, it is explained that órë may also refer to a kind of "conscience" or "inner voice" that goes beyond personal experience.
orma "physical matter" (MR:218, 231, 471)
Ormal One of the Lamps of the Valar: *"High-Gold"??? (Silm)
ornë "tree" (Letters:308, SD:302: "when smaller and more slender like a birch or rowan"). For the etymology, see Letters:426. In ornemalin "tree-yellow"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4; cf. Letters:308). Masc. name Ornendil *"Tree-friend" (Appendix A)
*oromardë "high-hall", pl oromardi (Nam, RGEO:66)
Orocarni "the Red Mountains", place-name: lit. *"Mountain-Reds" (Silm)
orofarnë "mountain-dwelling" (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in Letters:224)
Oromë name of a Vala, adopted and adapted from Valarin. Observes Pengolodh, "the Eldar now take the name to singify 'horn-blowing' or 'horn-blower', but to the Valar it had no such meaning" (WJ:400-401, cf. SA:rom) Genitive Oromëo and possessive Oroméva in WJ:368.
Oromet place-name of obscure meaning (Silm)
Oron Oiolossë "Mount Everwhite" (WJ:403)
Orrostar the "Eastlands" of Númenor (UT:165)
orta- "rise, raise, lift up", pa.t. ortanë (Nam, RGEO:67; misreading "ortani" in Letters:426)
ósanwë "thought", ósanwë-centa "communication of thought" (MR:415)
Ossë name of a Maia, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:400)
osto "a strong or fortified building or place, strong place, fortress, *city" (MR:350, 471; WJ:414); Ostoher masc. name, *"City-lord" (Appendix A)
otso "seven" (SA:sîr)
palan "far and wide" in palantíri, Tar-Palantir (SA); assimilated palar- in Palarran.
palantír (pl. palantíri) *"Far-seer", the magic far-seeing stones made by the Noldor in the First Age. Etymology, Letters:427. Also Palantir masc. name, "Far-sighted" (Appendix A)
Palarran "Far-Wanderer", name of a ship (palan + ran, note assimilation nr > rr) (UT:179)
parma "book", also name of tengwa 2 (Appendix E); parmatéma "p-series", labials (Appendix E)
Pelendur masc.name, *"Fence-servant"??? (Appendix A)
pella "beyond", apparently a postposition rather than a preposition in Quenya: Andúnë pella "beyond the West", elenillor pella "from beyond the stars" (Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya)
Pelóri "Fencing Heights", the mountains raised by the Valar to protect Aman (SA:pel, WJ:403)
Pereldar "Half-elven" (= Sindarin Peredhil) (Letters:282)
píca- "lessen, dwindle, waning"; participle pícala "waning" (with locative ending: pícalassë) in Markirya
Picinaucor ("Pikinaukor") "Petty-dwarves" (cf. nauco). Alto Pitya-naucor (WJ:389)
Pityafinwë "Little Finwë", masc. name; he was called Amrod in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Pityo (PM:353)
Pityo see Pityafinwë
púrëa "smeared, discoloured" (Markirya)
quáco ("quáko") "crow" (WJ:395)
Quantarië "Day of Completion, Oldyear's Day" (PM:127)
quantien ("quantiën") "full year" = yén (PM:126; pl. quantiéni, PM:127)
quár "fist" ("though its chief use was in reference to the tightly closed hand as in using an implement or a craft-tool rather than to the 'fist' as used in punching", PM:318)
quárë "fist" (SA:celeb)
quat- "fill" (WJ:392), future quantuva "shall fill" (enquantuva "shall refill") (Nam, RGEO:67)
quelië "waning" in Narquelië, q.v.
quellë "fading", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days, but also used without any exact definition, for the latter part of autumn and the beginning of winter (Appendix D)
queluva ("qeluva") *"will fail", future tense of a verb *quel- "fail"
quén pl. queni (as final element in compounds: -quen) "one, (some)body, person, individual, man or woman", pl. "persons", "(some) people", "they" with the most general meaning (as in "they [= people in general] say that..."). Combined with noun and adjective stems in old compounds to denote habitual occupations or functions, or to describe those having some notable (permanent) quality; examples include roquen, ciryaquen, arquen, q.v. Also in aiquen, ilquen (WJ:361 cf. 360, 372)
quendë "elf", the little-used sg. of Quendi, q.v.
Quendendil (also contracted Quendil; pl. Quendili in WJ:410) "Elf-friend" (WJ:410)
Quenderin "Quendian, belonging to the Elves as a whole" (a learned word) (WJ:407)
Quendi "Elves" as a race (analogical sg. quendë, not much used) (WJ:361; SA:quen-/quet-, WJ:372). Gen. pl. Quendion (PM:395)
quendi pl. quendir "Elvish woman" (MR:229; changed from quendë pl. quender.).
quendu pl. quendur *"Elvish man" (MR:229; changed from quendo pl. quendor)
Quendya original form of the word Quenya, preserved in the Vanyarin dialect (Quenya is the Noldorin form) (WJ:361, 371)
quenya "speech" (PM:399); the language-name Quenya is said to mean properly "language, speech" (WJ:393). However, Quenya (archaic Quendya, still so in Vanyarin) is also interpreted "Elvish" (Letters:176), sc. the adjective corresponding to Quendi (WJ:374), but no longer used as a general adjective. Quenya lambë "Quenya tongue" (WJ:407).
*querna probably "turned"; isolated from nuquerna (q.v.) *"under-turned" = reversed, turned upside down
quessë "feather", also name of tengwa 4 (Appendix E, WJ:417); quessetéma "labialized series" (Appendix E)
quet- "say, speak" (SA:quen-/quet-), pa.t. quentë in PM:401, 404
quetta "word" (SA:quen-/quet-), pl. quettar (WJ:391)
rac- ("rak-") "break", past participle rácina ("rákina") "broken" in Markirya
raica "bent", pl. raicar in LR:47 (read *raicë in mature Quenya)
ráma "wing", pl. rámar (Nam, RGEO:66); Markirya has both nominative pl. rámar "wings" and instrumental pl. rámainen *"with wings" (translated "on wings" by Tolkien).
ramba "wall" (SA)
Rána "the Wayward, the Wanderer", a name of the moon (MR:198, Silm)
ranga (pl. rangar is attested) "yard, full pace". This Númenórean linar measure was "slightly longer than our yard, approximately 38 inches [= 96.5 cm]". (UT:285, 461)
rassë "horn" (PM:69)
rauco ("rauko") "a powerful, hostile, and terrible creature", especially in the compound Valarauco "Demon of Might" (WJ:415, cf. SA)
raumo "(noise of a) storm" (Markirya)
rávë "roaring noise", from which noun is derived the adj. rávëa "roaring" (Markirya)
ré "day" (of the sun) (Appendix D); -rë in compounds like Ringarë
rembë "mesh" (Appendix E, in a footnote)
riel "garlanded maiden" (SA:kal-), full form riellë "a maiden crowned with a festival garland" (PM:347). In Altariel, Altariellë.
rimbë "great number, host" (SA:rim, Letters:282)
ringa "cold" (Markirya)
Ringarë the twelfth and last month of the year, "December" (Appendix D, SA:ring); the word seems to mean "Cold-day".
Rithil-Anamo "Ring of Doom", translation of the foreign word Máhanaxar that was adopted and adapted from Valarin. Likely *Risil-Anamo in Exilic Quenya (WJ:401)
-ro pronominal ending "he", in antaváro, q.v.
rocco ("rokko") "swift horse for riding" (SA:roch; Letters:428; cf. 282 where the spelling really is rocco, not rokko. In 428 the word is defined as "swift horse for riding".)
róma "horn" (WJ:368)
Rómen "east" (SA:men), "uprising, sunrise, east" (SA:rómen); also name of tengwa 25 (Appendix E). Rómenna, a place in the eastern part of Númenor, is simply the allative "eastward" (SA:rómen), cf. also rómenna in LR:47, 56. Ablative Rómello "from the East" or "[to one] from the East", hence Tolkien's translation "to those from the East" in his rendering of Namárië (Nam, RGEO:67). Masc. name Rómendacil "East-victor" (Appendix A; cf. Letters:425)
-ron gen. pl. ending in aldaron, see alda
rondo "a vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below" (and usually not visible from outside); "a (large) hall or chamber so roofed" (WJ:414)
roquen "horseman (-woman), rider, knight" (WJ:372, UT:282)
rossë "fine rain, dew" (PM:371)
rotto "a small grot or tunnel" (PM:365)
Rú "Drûg", Rúatan pl. Rúatani "Drúedain" (UT:385)
rúcima ("rúkima") "terrible" (WJ:415)
rucin ("rukin") "I feel fear or horror", 1. pers. aorist (constructed with 'from' of the object feared) (WJ:415)
rúcina ("rúkina") "confused, shattered, disordered, ruined" in Markirya (the first version of this poem had "red skies", MC:215, changed to "ruined skies" in the final version; see MC:220, note 8)
ruhta- "terrify" (WJ:415)
rúma- "shift, move, heave (of large and heavy things)"; participle rúmala in Markirya; this was changed to rúma, evidently the naked verbal stem used as participle
Rúmil masc. name, genitive Rúmilo (WJ:398)
rúnya "red flame" (SA:ruin; PM:366 gives runya)
rusco "fox" (PM:353)
Russandol "Copper-top", a nickname (epessë) of Maitimo/Nelyafinwë (= Maedhros) (PM:354)
ruxal' a word occurring in the Markirya poem, elided from *ruxala (the next word begins in an a), translated "crumbling", participle of *ruxa- "crumble" (a verbal stem not attested by itself) (Markirya)
-rya pronominal ending "his, her" (Nam, RGEO:67) in máryat "her hands", ómaryo "of her voice" (genitive of *ómarya "her voice"), súmaryassë "in her bosom" (locative of súmarya "her bosom"); for the meaning "his" cf. coarya "his house" (WJ:369)
-s pronominal ending, "it", in tiruvantes and utúvienyes, q.v.
saccantë ("sakkante") "rent" (past tense of an otherwise unattested verb *saccat- "rend"?) (SD:246)
Salmar (masc. name; etymology unclear) (Silm)
sandastan "shield-barrier", a battle-formation (UT:282; probably sandastam- since the final element is derived from a stem stama- "bar, exclude")
sanga "press, throng"; in Sangahyando "Throng-cleaver", name of a man in Gondor (SA:thang; a footnote in Letters:425 explains that "throng" here means a closely formed body of enemy soldiers)
sarat "letter" (pl. sarati), any individual significant mark, used of the letters of Rúmil after the invention of Fëanor's tengwar (WJ:396)
sar (stem sard-, see the Etymologies, entry SAR) "stone". In Elessar, q.v.
sarnië "shingle, pebble-bank" (UT:463)
Sauron "the Abhorred", name of a Maia. Earlier Thauron (SA:thaur), archaic *thaurond- (Letters:380, where a special letter is used instead of the digraph th)
*selma "a fixed idea, will" (WJ:319; only the archaic/Vanyarin form thelma is given, actually spelt with the letter thorn, not the digraph th)
sercë ("serkë) "blood" (SA:sereg)
sérë "rest", noun (cf. SED in the Etymologies); see under úyë concerning the sentence úyë sérë indo-ninya símen in Fíriel's Song
Serindë fem. name; "Broideress" (Silm) or "Needlewoman" (PM:333). Original form Therindë, q.v.
sí "now" (Nam, RGEO:67, LR:47, 310), sin (LR:47) or sín (SD:247, 310) before vowels. In Fíriel's Song, sí is translated "here".
sil- "shine" (white), present tense síla "shines, is shining" (FG); frequentative sisíla- (Markirya comments)
silima the substance the Silmarils were made of, invented by Fëanor (SA:sil)
Silmarien (sometimes "-riën") fem. name, apparently incorporates sil(i)ma (Appendix A)
Silmaril pl. Silmarilli the shining jewels made by Fëanor (SA:sil). Translated "radiance of pure light" in Letters:148. Genitive Silmarillion, as in (Quenta) Silmarillion "(the story) of the Silmarils".
silmë "starlight", also name of tengwa 29 (Appendix E); silmë nuquerna "s reversed", name of tengwa 30, similar to normal silmë but turned upside down (Appendix E)
Silpion alternative name of Telperion (Silm); derived from a stem SÍLIP, a longer form of SIL (also THIL) "shine silver" (LR:385)
símen "here" (FS; cf. sinomë in EO)
sin (1) a word either meaning "thus" (adverb) or "this" (as an independent word in the sentence, not modifying another word like sina does). Attested in the sentence sin quentë Quendingoldo Elendilenna, either *"this Pengolodh said to Elendil" or "thus spoke Pengolodh to Elendil" (PM:401). (2) a form of sí "now" (q.v.) occurring before vowels, possibly replaced by sín.
sina "this" (following its noun in our sole example: vanda sina "this oath") (CO)
sincahonda "flint-hearted" (LotR3:VI ch. 6)
sinda "grey"; nominal pl. Sindar used = "Grey-elves", lit. *"Grey ones"; see WJ:375. Gen. pl. Sindaron in WJ:369. With general meaning "grey" also in Sindacollo > Singollo "Grey-cloak, Thingol" (SA:thin(d); see also sindë, Sindicollo); sindanórië "grey land", ablative sindanóriello "from/out of a grey country" (Nam). However, other sources give sindë (q.v.) as the Quenya word for "grey"; perhaps sinda came to mean primarily "Grey-elf" as a noun. Derived adjective Sindarin "Grey-elven", normally used of the Grey-elven language. (Appendix F)
sindarinwa "Grey-elven" in the phrase hwesta sindarinwa "Grey-elven hw" (Appendix E); it may really be "Sindarin" (as a noun) with the possessive ending -va, -wa appended, hence literally "hw of [the] Sindarin [language]"
sindë "grey, pale or silvery grey" (the Vanyarin dialect preserves the older form thindë) (WJ:384; in SA:thin(d) the form given is sinda, cf. also sindanóriello "from a grey country" in Namárië. Sindë and sinda are apparently variants of the same word.) See Sindicollo.
Sindel pl. Sindeldi "Grey-elf" = Sinda, Sindar, but less common (WJ:384)
Sindicollo "Grey-cloak", title of Elwë (Elu). Sindarin Thingol. (WJ:410, MR:217). (Sindi- in this name is a compound form of sindë, q.v.) Original form Thindicollo (WJ:333). The Silmarillion appendix (SA:thin(d) ) gives Sindacollo.
Singollo contraction of Sindicollo (Silm)
sinomë "in this place" (EO)
Siriondil masc .name, *"Sirion-friend" (Appendix A)
sisíla- is said to be the "frequentative" form of sil- (MC:223); the participle sisílala in Markirya is simply translated "shining".
sorno "eagle" (archaic thorno) (Letters:427). Also soron.
soroni "eagles", changed to sorni (SD:290)
Sorontar = Sindarin Thorondor, name of an Eagle (SA:thoron)
Soronúmë (name of a constellation, apparently incorporating soron "eagle") (SA:thoron)
-ssë locative ending; in Lóriendessë, q.v.; pl. -ssen in yassen, mahalmassen, q.v.
súlë "spirit", also name of tengwa 9; originally thúlë, before the shift th > s that occurred shortly before the rebellion of the Noldor (Appendix E)
súlimë the third month of the year (SA:sûl)
Súlimë third month of the year, "March" (Appendix D)
Súlimo title of Manwë (SA:sûl)
súma "hollow cavity, bosom"; cf. súmaryassë "in her bosom" (súma-rya-ssë "bosom-her-in) in Markirya
sundo a Quendian consonantal "base"; sundóma *"base-vowel", the determinant vowel of a base (Christopher Tolkien gives the example KAT, which stem has the sundóma A; the stem TALAT has the sundóma repeated; in derivative forms the sundóma might be placed before the first consonant; e.g. ATALAT) (WJ:319)
súrë "wind", instrumental súrinen "in the wind" or more literally *"by the wind" (Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya); Súrion masc.name, *"Wind-son" (Appendix A)
-t (1) dual ending, denoting a pair of something: máryat "her (pair of) hands" (Nam)
-t (2) "them", pronominal ending; seen in the word laituvalmet "we shall bless them" (lait-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them"). Also independent word te.
-t (3) reduced pronominal affix of the 2. person, "you" (sg.). See heca! (WJ:364)
talantië "he is fallen"; (FS; see -ië concerning the doubtful authority of the stative verb ending in mature Quenya)
talat- a stem used for "slipping, sliding, falling down" (Letters:347)
talta- "slip, slide down, collapse"; reduplicated stem in the participle talta-taltala in Markirya, simply translated "falling" in MC:215
tana "to show, indicate" (MR:350, 385, 471) (also the demonstrative "that")
Tancol ("Tankol") "Signifer", "the significant star" = Venus (MR:385)
taniquelassë name of tree (UT:167), perhaps Tanique(til) + lassë "leaf"
Taniquetil the highest of the mountains of Valinor, upon which were the mansions of Manwë and Varda; properly, this name refers to the topmost peak only, the whole mountain being called Oiolossë (SA:til)
tanna "sign" (MR:385)
tar "beyond" (FS)
Tar- element prefixed to the names of the Kings and Queens of Númenor (e.g. Tar-Amandil); see their individual names (like Amandil in this case), also in Tareldar "High-elves"; see also Tarmenel.
Tareldar "High-elves" (MR:349)
tára "lofty" (SA:tar), "tall, high" (WJ:417)
Tarannon masc. name; "High-gift"? (Appendix A)
tarcalion = Tar-Calion, Quenya name of Ar-Pharazôn (LR:47, SD:246); see Calion
Tarcil masc. name, *"High-man", also used to mean Númenórean (Appendix A)
tárë "in that day", not translated in its first occurrence in Fíriel's Song
tári "queen", etymologically "she that is high" (SA:tar) Genitive tário. Elentári "Starqueen", a title of Varda. (Nam, RGEO:67). Tarinya "my queen" (UT:179; sic, not *tárinya)
tárië "height", allative tárienna "to [the] height" (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)
Tárion alternative name of Valanya, the last day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Powers (Valar) (Appendix D)
tarma "pillar" (SA:tar); Tarmasundar "the Roots of the Pillar", the slopes of Meneltarma in Númenor (UT:166)
Tarmenel "High Heaven" (LotR1:II ch. 1), Tar-melel "the true firmament", as opposed to Nur-menel (q.v.) (MR:388)
Tarondor masc. name, *"Lord of Ondor (Gondor)" (Appendix A)
Tarostar masc. name, "Lord of ostar [?]" (Appendix A)
tasarë "willow". In Tasarinan *"Willow-valley", Nan-tasarion *"Valley of willows" (SA:tathar)
Tasarinan *"Willow-vale", also Nan-Tasarion (LotR2:III ch. 4)
Tatyar "Seconds", the original name of the Noldor (or rather the direct Quenya descendant of the original name) (WJ:380)
taurë "wood, forest" (SA:taur, Letters:308), pl. tauri in Markirya; adj. taurëa "forested" in Tumbaletaurëa, see Taurelilómëa-tumbalemorna...
Taurelilómëa-tumbalemorna Tumbaletaurëa Lómeanor "Forestmanyshadowed-deepvalleyblack Deepvalleyforested Gloomyland", Quenya elements agglutinated in Entish fashion; this supposedly means something like "there is a black shadow in the deep dales of the forest" (LotR2:III ch. 4; translated in Appendix F under "Ents"; cf. also Letters:308)
Tauremorna place-name, *"Wood-black" (LotR2:III ch. 4) Tauremornalómë place-name, *"Forest (of) Black Night" (LotR2:III ch. 4)
te "them" (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)
tecil ("tekil") "pen" (PM:318)
tehta pl. tehtar "signs", diacritics, often used of the Fëanorian vowel-signs (explicitly ómatehtar) (Appendix E)
telco "stem" (Appendix E)
Telcontar "Strider" (MR:216)
telda "last, final" (WJ:407)
tele- "finish, end" (intransitive), also "be the last thing or person in a series or sequence of events" (WJ:411)
Telemmaitë masc. name, *"Silver-handed" (Appendix A)
Telemnar masc.name, "Silver-flame" (Appendix A; for *Telep-nar)
telep- see telpë
Teleri "those at the end of the line, the hindmost", a name of the Lindar, the third clan of the Eldar (WJ:382 cf. 371), derived from the stem tel- "finish, end, be last" (SA:tel-)
telluma "dome, copula", especially the "Dome of Varda" over Valinor, but also applied to the domes of the mansion of Manwë and Varda upon Taniquetil. Adopted from Valarin delgûmâ under the influence of pure Quenya telumë (WJ:399, 411). Pl. tellumar is attested (Nam, RGEO:66).
telma "a conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair", often applied to the last item in a structure, such as a coping-stone, or a topmost pinnacle (WJ:411)
telpë "silver" (telep- in some compounds like Telperion; assimilated telem- in Telemnar) (SA:celeb; also tyelpë, telep-, UT:266). The true Quenya descendant of primitive *kyelepê is tyelpë, but the Telerin form telpë was more common, "for the Teleri prized silver above gold, and their skill as silversmiths was esteemed even by the Noldor" (UT:266). Telperion the White Tree of Valinor; Telperien ("Telperiën"), fem. name including telep- "silver" (Appendix A); Telperinquar "Silver-fist, Celebrimbor" (SA:celeb - also Tyelperinquar); Telporno, Teleporno "Silver-high, Celeborn" (Letters:347, UT:266).
Telufinwë "Last Finwë", masc. name; he was called Amras in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Telvo. (PM:353)
telumë "roof, canopy" (WJ:411 cf. 399; see also telluma); Telumehtar "warrior of the sky", older name of Menelmacar = Orion (Appendix E, WJ:411); Telumendil *"Sky-friend", name of a constellation (Silm)
telya "finish, wind up, conclude" (transitive) (WJ:411)
téma (pl. témar attested) "series" (Appendix E)
ten "for", in Fíriel's Song; apparently replaced by an in mature Quenya.
téna see téra
tengwa (pl. tengwar attested) a letter, the written representation of a tengwë. In non-technical usage tengwa was equivalent to "consonant", since only the consonants were full signs (WJ:396)
tengwë (pl. tengwi attested) "indication, sign, token", apparently often used = phoneme in a language (WJ:394); hloníti tengwi "phonetic signs" (WJ:395)
tengwesta "a system or code of signs", a technical term for "language", including languages not made up of sounds (WJ:394), but used to mean "spoken language" when unqualified (WJ:395)
tengwestië "Language" as abstract or phenomenon (WJ:394)
tenna "until, up to, as far as" (CO), elided tenn' in the phrase tenn' Ambar-metta "until the end of the world" in EO, because the next word begins in a similar vowel; tennoio "for ever" (tenna + oio, q.v.)
ter "through" (Notes on CO, UT:317)
téra "straight" (LR:47; "téna" in SD:310 may be a misreading)
tercen ("terken") "insight", literally *"through-sight" (MR:471); adj. *tercenya (only pl. tercenyë attested) "of insight"; essi tercenyë "names of insight", names given to a child by its mother, indicating some dominant feature of its nature as perceived by her (MR:216)
Terendul "Slender-(and)-dark", masc. name (LR:59)
terhantë "broke", past tense of terhat- "break" (LR:47/56, cf. the stem SKAT in the Etymologies)
termar- "stand" meaning last (ter-mar- "through-abide"); future tense termaruva in Cirion's Oath
Thauron earlier form of Sauron, before the change th > s (SA:thaur, cf. Letters:380, that suggests a stem thaurond-, there spelt with the Greek letter for th)
thelma see *selma
thindë = older form of sindë, q.v., preserved in Vanyarin (WJ:384, there spelt with the special letter thorn, not the digraph th)
thorno archaic/Vanyarin form of sorno (Letters:427)
thúlë see súlë
tië "path", pl. tier in Namárië; (Nam, RGEO:67); tielyanna "upon your path" (UT:22 cf. 51; tie-lya-nna "path-your-upon")
tihta- "blink, peer", participle tihtala in an earlier variant of Markirya
Tilion "the Horned", name of a Maia, steersman of the Moon (SA:til)
tinco "metal", also name of tengwa 1 (Appendix E); tincotéma "t-series", dental series (Appendix E)
tindómë "starry twilight" (SA:tin), usually of the time near dawn, not near evening
tindómerel "daughter of the twilight", poetic name for the nightingale (Sindarin Tinúviel) (SA:tin)
tinta "cause to sparkle", in Tintallë "Kindler", a title of Varda who made the stars (SA:tin, MR:388)
Tintallë "Kindler", a title of Varda who kindled the stars (Nam, RGEO:67). From tinta- "kindle, make to sparkle" (MR:388)
tintila- "twinkle", present pl. tintilar (Nam, RGEO:67)
tinwë pl. tinwi "sparks", properly used of the star-imagines on Nur-menel (q.v.). Cf. nillë. (MR:388)
tir- "watch, watch over, guard, heed", future tense tiruva in Markirya, also in CO with pronominal endings: tiruvantes "they will guard it" (tir-uva-nte-s "guard-will-they-it"). The stem also occurs in palantíri (q.v.), Tirion "Great Watchtower", a city of the Elves (SA:tir; in MR:176 the translation is "Watchful City")
toi "they" (FS; replaced by te in mature Quenya?)
tol "isle" in Tol Eressëa "The Lonely Isle" (Silm)
tuilë "spring", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days, but also used without any exact definition. Cf. tuilérë *"Spring-day", a day outside the months in the Steward's Reckoning, inserted between Súlimë and Víressë (March and April) (Appendix D)
tul- "come", perfect utúlië "has come" (utúlien "I am come", EO), utúlie'n aurë "Day has come" (the function of the 'n is unclear; it may simply be inserted for euphony). Past tense túlë "came" in LR:47 and SD:246; read perhaps *tullë in mature Quenya.
tulca ("tulka") "yellow". Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)
Tulkas name of a Vala, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399)
tumba "deep valley" (Letters:308; SA:tum gives tumbo "valley"); apparently an extended form *tumbalë in tumbalemorna "deepvalleyblack" or (according to SA:tum) "black deep valley", also tumbaletaurëa "deepvalleyforested"; see Taurelilómëa-tumbalemorna...
Túna name of the hill on which Tirion was built (Silm), derived from a stem TUN apparently meaning simply *"hill, mound" (LR:395)
*tup- "cover", isolated from untúpa, q.v.
Turambar masc. name, "Master of Doom" (Appendix A, SA:tur)
Turcafinwë "strong, powerful (in body) Finwë", masc. name; he was called Celegorm in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Turco. (PM:352)
turcildi a name of the Númenóreans (LR:47, 56; SD:246). Sg. *turcil.
Turco see Turcafinwë
Túrin (masc. name), apparently meaning "victory-mood" (LR:395, stem TUR). The Etymologies gives Turindo as the Quenya form of this name; Túrin seems to be properly the Sindarin form, though it fits Quenya style well enough and Nienor used it in a Quenya sentence (near the end of ch. 21 in the Silmarillion)
Túrosto "Gabilgathol", a dwelling of the Dwarves (Sindarin Belegost; the names mean "Mickleburg", "Great Fortress")
Turucáno ("-káno") "Turgon" (PM:344)
*turúna "mastered", only attested in the elided form turún' (UT:138, apparently incomplete spelling turun in Silm ch. 21). The form must be understood as the past participle of tur- "wield, control, govern", but we would normally expect *túrina or *turna.
*tuv- "find", perfect utúvië "has found" in Aragorn's exclamation when he found the sapling of the White Tree: utúvienyes "I have found it" (utúvie-nye-s "have found-I-it") (LotR3:VI ch. 5)
tyávë pl. tyáver "taste", noun (pl. attested only in the compound lámatyávë, -tyáver, q.v.) (MR:215, 216)
tye "thee" (LR:70, Arctic)
tyel "end", noun (FS)
tyelca ("tyelka") "hasty"; Tyelcormo ("Tyelkormo") "hasty-riser", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Turcafinwë = Celegorm (PM:353)
tyellë (pl. tyeller attested) "grade" (Appendix E)
tyelma "ending" (FS)
tyelpë "silver", see Letters:426 or UT:266 for etymology. Tyelperinquar "Silver-fist, Celebrimbor" (PM:318; also Telperinqar, q.v.); tyelpetéma "palatal series" (Appendix E); Tyelperion less common name of Telperion (UT:266). Tyelpë is the true Quenya descendant of primitive *kyelepê, but the Telerin form telpë was more common, "for the Teleri prized silver above gold, and their skill as silversmiths was esteemed even by the Noldor" (UT:266).
tyulma "mast" (SD:419)
Therindë "Needlewoman", original form of Serindë, before the shift th > s (PM:333, where the special letter thorn is used instead of the digraph th)
Thindicollo original form of Sindicollo, before the shift th > s (PM:337, where the special letter thorn is used instead of the digraph th)
Úamanyar "those not of Aman", Elves who did not reach the Blessed Realm (but did leave Cuiviénen with the intention of going there) = Heceldi (WJ:371). Also Úmanyar and fuller Úmaneldi. (WJ:373)
ufárëa "not enough" (FS)
Uinen name of a Maia, spouse of Ossë. Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:404), though it is also said that it contains -nen "water" (SA:nen); the latter explanation may be folk etymology. In the Etymologies, the name is derived from the same stem as uilë "long trailing plant, especially seaweed" (LR:396 stem UY)
Úlairi "Nazgûl" (sg. *Úlairë? *Úlair?) Etymology obscure.
ullier "poured", a past tense of ulya- "pour" occurring in LR:47; read probably *uller in mature Quenya. In SD:247, ullier is translated "should flow".
ullumë an word occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently meaning "not for ever".
Ulmo name of a Vala, interpreted "the Pourer" by folk etymology, but the name was actually adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:400)
Ulumúri The great horns of Ulmo; etymology obscure (Silm)
Úmaneldi *"Non-Aman Elves", Elves who never dwelt in Aman (= Úmanyar) (WJ:373)
Úmanyar "those not of Aman", Eldar that did not reach Aman, sc. Sindar and Nandor (SA:mân). Also Úamanyar.
umbar "fate", also name of tengwa 6 (Appendix E)
Umbardacil "Umbar-victor" (Appendix A); the place-name Umbar is not Quenya and has no connection to umbar "fate"
Umbarto "Fated", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Telufinwë = Amras. The ominous name was altered to Ambarto by Fëanor. (PM:353-354)
undómë "twilight", usually of the time near evening, not near dawn (that is tindómë)
undu- "down", in undulávë "down-licked" = covered. Lumbulë undulávë ilyë tier "(heavy) shadow down-licked all paths", lyrical translation "all paths are drowned deep in shadow"
undumë "abyss" (Markirya)
ungwë "spider's web", also name of tengwa 8 (Appendix E)
*únótima "numberless", pl. únótimë (ú-nót-imë "not-count-able") (Nam, RGEO:66, Appendix E)
unquë "a hollow", also name of tengwa 16 (Appendix E)
untúpa "down-roofs" = covers (perhaps for *undutúpa-, cf. undu-). Present tense of untup- with lengthening of the stem vowel and the suffix -a (cf. síla "shines" from sil-)
unuhuinë "under-shadow" (LR:47); see huinë.
únyárima "impossible to recount" (because all the facts are not known, or the tale is to long" (WJ:370)
úquétima "unspeakable", sc. impossible to say, put into words; also "unpronounceable" (WJ:370)
Úr-anar word occurring in Fíriel's Song, translated "the red sun"; actually the prefixed element úr- must have to do with the element ur- "heat, be hot" mentioned in the Silmarillion Appendix.
urco ("urko") pl. urqui an old word used in the lore of the Blessed Realm for anything that caused fear to the Elves during the March; by the Exiles recognized as the cognate of Sindarin orch and used to mean "Orc". The Sindarin-influenced form orco was also used. (WJ:390)
úrë "heat", also name of tengwa 36 (Appendix E)
Úrimë (in some editions Urimë, but cf. úrë "heat") eighth month of the year, "August" (Appendix D, SA:ur-, UT:302)
Urulóki "fire-dragons" (SA:ur-)
Urundil "copper-lover" (PM:365)
utúlien see tul- (EO)
Utumno name of the first great stronghold of Melkor (SA:tum)
utúvienyes see *tuv-
úva "will not", future tense of a negative verb (present tense úyë?) in Fíriel's Song
-uva future tense ending. In laituvalmet, tiruvantes, enquantuva, cenuva, caluva.
úyë a verb occurring in Fíriel's Song, apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")
vá (exclamation) "I will not!" or "Do not!"; ván, ványë "I won't!", vammë "we won't" (WJ:371)
-va possessive ending, in Eldaliéva, miruvóreva, Oroméva. Pl. -vë when governing a plural word (from archaic -vai) (WJ:407), but it seems that -va was used throughout in late Exilix Quenya (cf. miruvóreva governing the plural word yuldar in Namárië)
vaháya "far away" (LR:47, SD:310). Also spelt vaihaiya (SD:247)
Vairë "the Weaver", name of a Valië (Silm)
Valar "Powers", angelic spirits guarding the world on behalf of its Creator, sometimes called Gods. Sg. vala "angelic power", also name of tengwa 22 (Appendix E). Usually capitalized Vala. Gen. pl. Valion "of the Valar" (FS); this form shows the pl. Vali, (irregular) alternative to Valar (the gen.pl. could certainly be *Valaron as well). Pl. allative valannar *"to/on the Valar" (LR:47, 56; SD:246). Vala is properly a verb "has power" (sc. over the matter of Eä), also used as a noun "a Power" (WJ:403). The verb vala- "rule, order", used with reference to the Valar only, is attested only in the sentences á vala Manwë! "may Manwë order it!" and Valar valuvar "the will of the Valar will be done" (WJ:404). Names: Valacar masc. name, *"Vala-head"??? (Appendix A), Valandil masc. name, "God-friend, *Vala-friend" (Appendix A, translated in LR:60), Valandur masc. name, *"Vala-servant" (Appendix A)
Valacirca "Sickle of the Gods", a name of the Great Bear (Big Dipper) constellation (SA:val-, MR:388)
Valandor "the land of the Valar", confused with and replaced by Valinórë "the people of the Valar", short form Valinor (SA:dôr, Silm)
Valanya last day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Valar (Appendix D). Etymology, see Letters:427. Also called Tárion.
Valaquenta "Account of the Valar" (SA:val-)
Valarauco ("Valarauko") "Demon of Might" (here vala- assumes its basic meaning "power"), Sindarin balrog (WJ:415). Pl. Valaraucar (not -or) "Balrogs" (SA:val-, SA:rauco)
Valaróma "Vala-horn", Oromë's horn (Silm)
Valië female Vala, pl. Valier (Silm)
Valimar "Vala-home", a region in Valinor also called Valmar. In Namárië, this word is used = Valinor. (Nam, RGEO:67)
Valinórë, Valinor "the land (or people) of the Valar"; cf. Valandor.
Valmar alternative form of Valimar (Silm)
Vána a Valië, the wife of Oromë (Silm, WJ:383)
vanda "oath, pledge, solemn promise" (CO)
vánë past tense of auta-, q.v. (WJ:365)
vánië an augmentless perfect of auta- that may occur in verse; regular avánië (WJ:365)
vanima "beautiful", nominal pl. vanimar "beautiful ones", partitive pl. genitive vanimálion, translated "of beautiful children", but literally meaning *"of [some] beautiful ones") (LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308). Arwen vanimalda "Beautiful Arwen", literally "Arwen your beauty" (see -lda for reference; changed to Arwen vanimelda in the second edition of LotR)
vanimalda *"your beautiful"; Arwen vanimalda "Arwen your beauty = beautiful Arwen" (WJ:369; Tolkien emended vanimalda to vanimelda in the second edition of LotR; see under vanima)
Vanimeldë fem. name, *"Beautiful-Dear-One" (Appendix A)
vanwa "gone, lost, no longer to be had, vanished, departed, dead, past and over" (WJ:365, Nam, RGEO:67)
vanya "fair" (FS); nominal pl. Vanyar "the Fair", the first clan of the Eldar; the original meaning of this stem was "pale, light-coloured, not brown or dark" (WJ:380, 381)
váquet- (1. pers. aorist váquetin and 1. pers. past tense váquenten are given) "to say no" (not denying that something is true, but denying to do or to allow something: "to say I will not/do not"; "to refuse", "to forbid" (WJ:370, 371)
Varda "the Sublime", name of a Valië (WJ:402; in Letters:282 Varda is translated the "Lofty"), the Queen of the Valar, spouse of Manwë, called Elbereth in Sindarin; genitive Vardo (for *Vardao). (Nam, RGEO:66). Vardamir masc. name, *"Varda-jewel" (Appendix A); vardarianna ?"Varda-gift", name of a tree (but the ri element is obscure) (UT:167)
Vása "the Consumer", a name of the Sun (MR:130)
ve "as, like" (Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya)
véra (Old Quenya wéra) "personal, private, own" (PM:340)
vilya "air, sky", also name of tengwa 24. Older wilya. (Appendix E)
Vincarna *"newly-made" (MR:408)
Vingelot, Vingilot, Vingilótë "Foam-flower", name of Eärendil's ship (SA:wing, Silm)
Vinyamar *"New Dwelling" (Silm)
Vinyarië "Newyear's Day" (PM:127)
Víressë fourth month of the year, "April" (Appendix D)
vórima "steadfast in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise, faithful"; genitive vórimo in a variant of Cirion's Oath; see UT:317
voronda "steadfast in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise, faithful", used as a title of Elendil Voronda; genitive Vorondo in Cirion's Oath
Vorondil masc.name, *"Faithful friend" (Appendix A)
voronwë "steadfastness, loyalty, faithfulness" (CO), also masc. name Voronwë (PM:340)
-wë a suffix occurring in many personal names, generally but not exclusively masculine; derived from a stem simply meaning "person" (PM:340, WJ:399)
-wen "maiden", a frequent ending in feminine names like Eärwen *"Sea-maiden" (SA:wen)
wéra Old Quenya form of véra, q.v.
wilwa "vague, fluttering to and fro" (Markirya)
wilwarin "butterfly" (Markirya); Wilwarin name of a constellation, tentatively identified as Cassiopeia. (Silm)
wilya see vilya
winga "foam, spray" (Markirya)
winta- "scatter, blow about" (both transitive and intransitive) (PM:376)
yaimë "wailing" (noun), from which is derived the adjective yaimëa "wailing", pl. yaimië in Markirya
yal- "summon". In enyalië "to recall" (Notes on CO, UT:317)
ya relative pronoun "which, what" (attested in the Arctic sentence), with locative suffix in Namárië: see *yassë
yallumë "at last" (FS)
yanta "bridge", also name of tengwa 35 (Appendix E)
yarra "growl, snarl" (stem used as participle in Markirya, translated "snarling")
*yassë "in which", pl. yassen referring back to a plural noun. (Nam, RGEO:66)
Yavanna "fruit-giver", name of a Valië (cf. yávë); Yavannië name of the ninth month of the year, "September" (Appendix D, SA:yávë); Yavannildi "Followers of Yavanna", Elvish women who knew and kept the secret of the making of coimas (lembas) (PM:404); yavannamírë "Yavanna-jewel", name of a tree with globed and scarlet fruits (UT:167)
yávë "fruit"; cf. Yavanna
yávië "autumn" (SA:yávë); "autumn, harvest", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days, but also used without any exact definition (Appendix D); yáviérë *"Autumn-day", a day outside the months in the Steward's Reckoning, inserted between Yavannië and Narquelië (September and October) (Appendix D)
ye "is" (FS); replaced by ná in mature Quenya. Future tense yéva, q.v.
yé untranslated interjection in Aragorn's exclamation when he found the sapling of the White Tree: *"yeah!"
yén (pl. yéni in Nam, obsoleting yen[i] in the Etymologies, stem YEN), Elvish "long year" of 144 solar years, 52,596 days (Nam, Appendix D, E; RGEO:66. Tolkien originally defined yén as 100 solar years; see PM:126) Yénonótië *"reckoning of years" (MR:51)
yestarë *"first-day", the first day of the year (loa), immediately before tuilë (Appendix D)
yéva "will be" (also "there will be"), apparently the future tense of ye. Once translated "is" (írë ilqua yéva nótina, "when all is counted"), but this event belongs to the future; hence literally *"when all will be counted" (FS)
yomenië "meeting, gathering" (of three or more coming from different directions) (WJ:407)
yulda "draught", pl. yuldar (Nam, RGEO:66)
yulma "cup" (Nam, RGEO:67), "drinking-vessel" (WJ:416)
yulmë "drinking, carousal" (WJ:416)