Vitamins and metabolic markers offered by BEVITAL are organized according to the analytical
platform A to H.

Multianalyte determination is carried out in a single aliquot which reduces sample volume requirement. For detailed recommendation on blood sampling, sample volume, transportation etc. related to specific parameters, go to "About the biomarkers".

GC-MS, metabolites

Metabolite Abbr Category Reference values Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Methylmalonic acid MMA Carboxylic acid <0.26 µmol/L Serum, plasma
50-200
Total homocysteine tHcy Aminothiol 5-15 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Total cysteine tCys Aminothiol 150-350 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Methionine Met Amino acid 18-33 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Serine Ser Amino acid 95-125 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Glycine Gly Amino acid 200-300 µmol/L Serum, plasma

GC-MS/MS, metabolites and amino acids

Metabolite Abbr Category Reference values* Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Methylmalonic acid MMA Carboxylic acid <0.26 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
50-200
Total homocysteine tHcy Aminothiol 5-15 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Total cysteine tCys Aminothiol 150-350 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Methionine Met Apolar amino acid 18-33 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Serine Ser Polar amino acid 95-125 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Glycine Gly Amino acid 200-300 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Cystathionine Cysta Thioether <0.4 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Sarcosine** Sarc 0.7-2.3 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Histidine His Charged amino acid 26-120 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Tryptophan Trp Hydrofo. amino acid 43-89 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Kynurenine Kyn Trp metabolite 1.0-2.9 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
3-Hydroxykynurenine HK Trp metabolite Urine
Kynurenic acid KA Trp metabolite Urine
Anthranilic acid AA Trp metabolite Urine
Xanthurenic acid XA Trp metabolite Urine
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid HAA Trp metabolite Urine
4-Pyridoxic acid PA B6 catabolite Urine
Formiminoglutamic acid Figlu His metabolite Urine
Ornithine Orn Charged amino acid 30-90 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Aspartic acid Asp Charged amino acid 0-26 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Glutamic acid Glu Charged amino acid 20-140 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Lysine Lys Charged amino acid 120-290 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Alanine Ala Apolar amino acid 230-510 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Phenylalanine Phe Apolar amino acid 26-85 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Isoleucine Ile Apolar amino acid 40-140 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Leucine Leu Apolar amino acid 70-170 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Proline Pro Amino acid 110-360 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Valine Val Apolar amino acid 150-350 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Asparagine Asn Polar amino acid 20-130 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Glutamine Gln Polar amino acid 390-700 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Threonine Thr Polar amino acid 70-240 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Tyrosine Tyr Polar amino acid 40-110 µmol/L Serum, plasma
α-Ketoglutaric acid aKG Keto acid 20-50 µmol/L Serum, plasma
3-Hydroxyisobutyrate 3-HIB Val catabolite 15-25 µmol/L Serum, plasma
*Reference values for plasma and serum
**Sarcosine cannot be measured in EDTA-tubes from some suppliers because of the presence of sarcosine in these tubes

LC-MS/MS, metabolites

Metabolite Abbr Category Reference values* Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Choline Chol Quarternary ammonium 5-12 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
50-200
Total choline tChol Choline esters 2-3 mmol/L Serum, plasma
Trimethylamine N-oxide TMAO Serum, plasma, urine
Betaine Bet Quarternary ammonium 16-51 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Dimethylglycine DMG 1.5–4 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Total homocysteine tHcy Amino acid <15 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Creatine Crn   Serum, plasma, urine
Creatinine Creat <90 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Methionine Met Amino acid 18-33 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Methionine sulfoxide MetSo Amino acid Serum, plasma, urine
Cystathionine Cysta Thioether < 0.4 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Total cysteine tCys Amino acid 150-350 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Histidine His Amino acid Serum, plasma, urine
3-Methylhistidine 3-MH Amino acid 0.7-14 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
1-Methylhistidine 1-MH Amino acid 2.7-7 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Arginine Arg Amino acid 10-80 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Asymmetric dimethylarginine ADMA 0.4-1.0 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Symmetric dimethylarginine SDMA 0.3-0.7 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Homoarginine hArg Amino acid 2-6 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Trimethyllysine TML Amino acid Serum, plasma, urine
*Reference values for plasma and serum

LC-MS/MS, B-vitamins and kynurenines

Metabolite Abbr Category Reference values Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate PLP B6 vitamer 17–102 nmol//L Serum, plasma
60-200
Pyridoxal PL B6 vitamer 6–28 nmol/L Serum, plasma
4-Pyridoxic acid PA B6 vitamer 11–88 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Pyridoxine PN B6 vitamer Serum, plasma
Thiamine Thi B1 vitamer 7–16 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Thiamine monophosphate TMP B1 vitamer 1–3 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Riboflavin Ribo B2 vitamer 5–38 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Flavin mononucleotide FMN B2 vitamer 3–13 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Cystathionine Cysta Thioether <0.4 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Neopterin Neopt Pteridine <20 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Tryptophan Trp Amino acid 43-89 µmol/L Serum, plasma
      3-9 µmol/L CSF
Kynurenine Kyn Trp metabolite 1.0-2.9 µmol/L Serum, plasma
      0.06-0.9 µmol/L CSF
Kynurenic acid KA Trp metabolite 20-100 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      0.5-15 nmol/L CSF
Anthranilic acid AA Trp metabolite 7-30 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      -21 nmol/L CSF
3-Hydroxykynurenine HK Trp metabolite 10-65 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      0.1-10 nmol/L CSF
Xanthurenic acid XA Trp metabolite 5-35 nmol/L Serum, plasma
        CSF
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid HAA Trp metabolite 7-50 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      1-7 nmol/L CSF
Picolinic acid Pic Trp metabolite 90-370nmol/L Serum, plasma
      3-60 nmol/L CSF
Quinolinic acid QA Trp metabolite 134-384 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      2-150 nmol/L CSF
Nicotinic acid NA B3 vitamer <20 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Nicotinamide NAM B3 vitamer 92-388 nmol/L Serum, plasma
N1-methylnicotinamide mNAM B3 vitamer 27-221 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Cotinine Cot Nicotine metabolite Serum, plasma, urine
Trans-3'-hydroxycotinine OHCot Nicotine metabolite Serum, plasma, urine
Trigonelline Trig Alkaloid Serum, plasma

LC-MS/MS, folate and folate catabolites

Metabolite Abbr Category Reference
values
Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
5-Methyl-tetrahydrofolate mTHF Folate >5 nmol/L Serum, plasma
60-200
5-Formyl-tetrahydrofolate fTHF Folate 0-2 nmol/l Serum, plasma
Folic acid FA Folate 0-2 nmol/L Serum, plasma
4-Alfa-hydroxy-5-methyl-THF hmTHF Oxidized folate Serum, plasma
Para-aminobenzoylglutamate pABG Folate catabolite 0-0.5 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Acetamidobenzoylglutamate apABG Folate catabolite 0.1-1 nmol/L Serum, plasma

Microbiological assay

Metabolite Abbr Category Reference values Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Serum folate s-Folate B-vitamin >5 nmol/L Serum, plasma
100-250
Erythrocyte folate e-Folate B-vitamin
Serum cobalamin s-B12 B-vitamin >150 pmol/L Serum, plasma

MALDI-TOF MS, peptide and protein biomarkers

Metabolite Abbr Category Reference values Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
C-reactive protein hsCRP Protein 0-10 µg/ml Serum, plasma
20-100
Serum amyloid A and variants SAA Protein 0-20 µg/ml Serum, plasma
Calprotectin and variants Calp Protein 0-30 µg/ml Serum, plasma
Cystatin C and variants Cys-C Protein 0-8 µg/ml Serum, plasma
HbA1c Protein 4-14 % Whole blood

LC-MS/MS, fat-soluble vitamins

Metabolite Abbr Category Reference
values
Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
All-trans retinol Vit. A A vitamer 1.46-2.84 µmol/L Serum, plasma
50-200
25-hydroxy vitamin D2 25OH-D2 D vitamer 0-30 nmol/L Serum, plasma
25-hydroxy vitamin D3 25OH-D3 D vitamer 32.4-98.5 nmol/L Serum, plasma
alpha-tocopherol Vit. E E vitamer 18.9-38.8.0 µmol/L Serum, plasma
alpha-tocopherolacetate Vit. E suppl. E vitamer  
gamma-tocopherol Vit. E E vitamer 2-11 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Phylloquinone Vit. K1 K vitamer 0.1-8.7 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Menaquinone-4 Vit. K2 K vitamer