Some Mannish tongues are mentioned in Tolkien's works, but except in the case of Adûnaic, our knowledge is fragmentary. Concerning the early linguistic history of Men, see the opening paragraphs in the article about Adûnaic. Many Mannish languages were influenced by Elvish. When Felagund so quickly deciphered the language of Bëor and his men, it was partly because "these Men had long had dealings with the Dark Elves east of the mountains, and from them had learned much of their speech; and since all the languages of the Quendi were of one origin, the language of Bëor and his folk resembled the Elven-tongue in many words and devices" (Silmarillion chapter 17).
We don't know much genuine Rohirric, for in LotR, Tolkien rendered it by Old English: He tried to reproduce for English readers its archaic flavour in relationship to the Common Speech (itself represented by modern English - but it must be understood that Rohirric was not the ancestor of the Common Speech the way Old English is of modern English). Thus, names like Éomer and phrases like ferthu Théoden hál are not transcriptions of the actual words used back in the Third Age. Nonetheless, a few words of genuine Rohirric have been published. Appendix F informs us that trahan means "burrow", corresponding to genuine Hobbit trân "smial"; the language of the Hobbits had at some point in the past been influenced by Rohirric or a closely related language. Another example is Hobbit kast "mathom", corresponding to Rohirric kastu. The word hobbit itself represents the actual Third Age word kuduk, a worn-down Hobbitic form of Rohirric kûd-dûkan, "hole-dweller" - itself represented by Old English holbytla in LotR.
After the publication of The Peoples of Middle-earth we have a few more words. According to PM:53, the frequent element éo- "horse" (in Éowyn, Éomer etc.) represents genuine Rohirric loho-, lô-, evidently a cognate of the Elvish words for "horse" (cf. Quenya rocco, Sindarin roch) - demonstrating the influence of Elvish on the Mannish tongues. Éothéod, "Horse-folk" or "Horse-land", is a translation of genuine Rohirric Lohtûr. The Sindarin name Rohan corresponds to the native Lôgrad (in Old English version Éo-marc, the "Horse-mark"). Théoden represents tûrac-, an old word for "king" (cf. the Elvish stem TUR- referring to power and mastery; LR:395).
According to UT:387, the actual Rohirric word for "wose" (wild man) was róg pl. rógin. (The plural ending -in is also known from Doriathrin, so this may be yet another testimony of Elvish influence on the Mannish tongues.) Cf. also Nóm pl. Nómin in the language of Bëor's people (Silmarillion ch. 17; see below).
In Tolkien's draft for Appendix F (where the "real" names appeared as Trahand and Nahand), they were translated "apt to creep into a hole" and "apt to hide, secretive", respectively (PM:54). In the same source, Tolkien added that "Smaug, the Dragon's name, is a representation in similar terms, in this case of a more Scandinavian character, of the Dale name Trâgu, which was probably related to the trah- stem in the Mark and Shire". Thus, the made-up names Sméagol (pseudo-Old English) and Smaug (pseudo-Scandinavian) involve the same original stem, representing the relationship between the actual Middle-earth names Trahald and Trâgu. Since Trahald is said to mean "burrowing, worming in" or "apt to creep into a hole", it is interesting to notice that Tolkien stated that the name Smaug (representing Trâgu) is "the past tense of the primitive Germanic verb Smugan, to squeeze through a hole" (Letters:31).
Regarding the language ancestral to Dunlending, see below.
In the Silmarillion, chapter 17, it is recorded that Bëor's people called the Elven-king Felagund Nóm, "Wisdom", and his people they called Nómin, "the Wise". Thus, their language would seem to have a plural ending -in, also found in Rohirric (and Doriathrin). Compare haladin above.
Tolkien's ideas about Taliska and its history seems to have changed over time. Ellen Schousboe notes (private communication, reproduced here with her permission):
As for the external history of Taliska, such as I have found in HoME: If haladin sounds like a familiar word, that's because it is...! At the time that Tolkien wrote the words currently known of Taliska, he conceived it as the language of the Folk of Bëor and the Folk of Haleth.(Unquote Schousboe.) So even in the case of the "minor" languages in Tolkien's legendarium, Tolkien's shifting conceptions may complicate matters!
Originally there were only two Houses of the Edain: The Folk of Bëor and the Folk of Hador. The "House of Haleth" was just a sub-group of the Hadorians. I don't know what the linguistic situation was at this time, whether Taliska had been conceived in any form yet.
Later, The Third House became separate, under "Haleth the Hunter" and later, Lady Haleth. (...) The House of Hador spoke one language, which would eventually be conceived as Adunaic. The Bëorians and Halethians, meanwhile, both spoke the Taliska language. That was the situation when Tolkien made the Taliska words you have listed.
Also, in the War of the Jewels text, Tolkien decided that Haladin only referred to the House of Haleth (the chieftains descended from her brother) and not to the whole Folk.
But years later he changed the situation again (and the changed version was put in the "published" Silmarillion). In The Peoples of Middle-Earth is a text called "Of Dwarves and Men" (c. 1969) which includes linguistic information. According to that, the Bëorians and Halethians did not speak the same language at all, or even related languages! The Hadorians spoke ancient Adunaic, and the Bëorians had a closely related language, but had adopted various "words and devices" from foreign Mannish languages, so that their tongue sounded a bit strange to Hadorian ears.
The Halethians, meanwhile, spoke a completely unrelated language. This language was however related to Dunlending, in fact it was ancestral to that language. The Dunlendings were descended from the remnant of the Halethians who never crossed into Beleriand. "Pre-Numenorean" was also related in some way to the Halethian tongue. That's the language that was spoken in Gondor before the Numenoreans colonised it, and wiped out the old inhabitants.
In this later linguistic conception, Nóm and Nómin would be Bëorian words, but all the other words (bor and talbor and all the hal-based words) are words of the Woodmen of Brethil, so they would be Halethian. I don't know what would happen to the name "Taliska" itself under this later situation.
It does seem rather weird that two supposedly unrelated languages would have the same plural formation -in, but unless the Taliska grammar is from after 1968, I guess that's what we are stuck with! Or maybe you could think of it as one of the "devices" the Bëorians borrowed from foreign languages.