Vitamins and metabolic markers offered by BEVITAL are organized according to the
analytical platform A to H.
Multianalyte determination is carried out in a single aliquot. Volume requirement (right column) is independent of the number of metabolites. ”Reported values” (third column) are not strictly ”normal reference range”, which depends on the population, and several factors, including age, gender, ethnicity and procedures for sample handling and analytical technology. ”Reported values” are concentrations that we and others have observed or reported in various cohorts of healthy subjects.

GC-MS, metabolites

Metabolite Abbr Category Reported
values*
Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Methylmalonic acid MMA Carboxylic acid <0.26 µmol/L Serum, plasma
50-200
Total homocysteine tHcy Aminothiol 5-15 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Total cysteine tCys Aminothiol 150-350 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Methionine Met Amino acid 18-33 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Serine Ser Amino acid 95-125 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Glycine Gly Amino acid 200-300 µmol/L Serum, plasma

GC-MS/MS, metabolites and amino acids

Metabolite Abbr Category Reported
values*
Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Methylmalonic acid MMA Carboxylic acid <0.26 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
50-200
Total homocysteine tHcy Aminothiol 5-15 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Total cysteine tCys Aminothiol 150-350 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Methionine Met Apolar amino acid 18-33 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Serine Ser Polar amino acid 95-125 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Glycine Gly Amino acid 200-300 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Cystathionine Cysta Thioether <0.4 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Sarcosine** Sarc 0.7-2.3 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Histidine His Charged amino acid 26-120 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Tryptophan Trp Hydrofo. amino acid 43-89 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Kynurenine Kyn Trp metabolite 1.0-2.9 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
3-Hydroxykynurenine HK Trp metabolite Urine
Kynurenic acid KA Trp metabolite Urine
Anthranilic acid AA Trp metabolite Urine
Xanthurenic acid XA Trp metabolite Urine
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid HAA Trp metabolite Urine
4-Pyridoxic acid PA B6 catabolite Urine
Formiminoglutamic acid Figlu His metabolite Urine
Ornithine Orn Charged amino acid 30-90 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Aspartic acid Asp Charged amino acid 0-26 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Glutamic acid Glu Charged amino acid 20-140 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Lysine Lys Charged amino acid 120-290 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Alanine Ala Apolar amino acid 230-510 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Phenylalanine Phe Apolar amino acid 26-85 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Isoleucine Ile Apolar amino acid 40-140 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Leucine Leu Apolar amino acid 70-170 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Proline Pro Amino acid 110-360 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Valine Val Apolar amino acid 150-350 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Asparagine Asn Polar amino acid 20-130 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Glutamine Gln Polar amino acid 390-700 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Threonine Thr Polar amino acid 70-240 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Tyrosine Tyr Polar amino acid 40-110 µmol/L Serum, plasma
α-Ketoglutaric acid aKG Keto acid 20-50 µmol/L Serum, plasma
3-Hydroxyisobutyrate 3HIB Val catabolite 15-25 µmol/L Serum, plasma
2-Hydroxybutyrate aHB Organic acid 10-60 µmol/L Serum, plasma
3-Hydroxybutyrate bHB Keton body 20-700 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Acetoacetate AcAc Keton body 10-200 µmol/L Serum, plasma
*Reported values for plasma and serum
**Sarcosine cannot be measured in EDTA-tubes from some suppliers because of the presence of sarcosine in these tubes

LC-MS/MS, metabolites

Metabolite Abbr Category Reported values* Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Choline Chol Quarternary ammonium 5-12 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
50-200
Total choline tChol Choline esters 2-3 mmol/L Serum, plasma
Trimethylamine N-oxide TMAO Serum, plasma, urine
Betaine Bet Quarternary ammonium 16-51 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Dimethylglycine DMG 1.5–4 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Total homocysteine tHcy Amino acid <15 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Creatine Crn   Serum, plasma, urine
Creatinine Creat <90 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Methionine Met Amino acid 18-33 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Methionine sulfoxide MetSo Amino acid Serum, plasma, urine
Cystathionine Cysta Thioether < 0.4 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Total cysteine tCys Amino acid 150-350 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Histidine His Amino acid Serum, plasma, urine
3-Methylhistidine 3-MH Amino acid 2.7-7 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
1-Methylhistidine 1-MH Amino acid 0.7-14 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Arginine Arg Amino acid 10-80 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Asymmetric dimethylarginine ADMA 0.4-1.0 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Symmetric dimethylarginine SDMA 0.3-0.7 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Homoarginine hArg Amino acid 2-6 µmol/L Serum, plasma, urine
Trimethyllysine TML Amino acid Serum, plasma, urine
*Reported values for plasma and serum

LC-MS/MS, B-vitamins and kynurenines

Metabolite Abbr Category Reported values Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate PLP B6 vitamer 17–102 nmol//L Serum, plasma
60-200
Pyridoxal PL B6 vitamer 6–28 nmol/L Serum, plasma
4-Pyridoxic acid PA B6 vitamer 11–88 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Pyridoxine PN B6 vitamer Serum, plasma
Thiamine Thi B1 vitamer 7–16 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Thiamine monophosphate TMP B1 vitamer 1–3 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Riboflavin Ribo B2 vitamer 5–38 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Flavin mononucleotide FMN B2 vitamer 3–13 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Cystathionine Cysta Thioether <0.4 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Neopterin Neopt Pteridine <20 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Tryptophan Trp Amino acid 43-89 µmol/L Serum, plasma
      3-9 µmol/L CSF
Kynurenine Kyn Trp metabolite 1.0-2.9 µmol/L Serum, plasma
      0.06-0.9 µmol/L CSF
Kynurenic acid KA Trp metabolite 20-100 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      0.5-15 nmol/L CSF
Anthranilic acid AA Trp metabolite 7-30 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      3-14 nmol/L CSF
3-Hydroxykynurenine HK Trp metabolite 10-65 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      0.1-10 nmol/L CSF
Xanthurenic acid XA Trp metabolite 5-35 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      <0.5 nmol/L CSF
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid HAA Trp metabolite 7-50 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      1-7 nmol/L CSF
Picolinic acid Pic Trp metabolite 20-60 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      3-60 nmol/L CSF
Quinolinic acid QA Trp metabolite 134-384 nmol/L Serum, plasma
      2-150 nmol/L CSF
Nicotinic acid NA B3 vitamer <20 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Nicotinamide NAM B3 vitamer 92-388 nmol/L Serum, plasma
N1-methylnicotinamide mNAM B3 vitamer 27-221 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Cotinine Cot Nicotine metabolite Serum, plasma, urine
Trans-3'-hydroxycotinine OHCot Nicotine metabolite Serum, plasma, urine
Trigonelline Trig Alkaloid Serum, plasma

LC-MS/MS, folate and folate catabolites

Metabolite Abbr Category Reported
values
Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
5-Methyl-tetrahydrofolate mTHF Folate >5 nmol/L Serum, plasma
60-200
5-Formyl-tetrahydrofolate fTHF Folate 0-2 nmol/l Serum, plasma
Folic acid FA Folate 0-2 nmol/L Serum, plasma
4-Alfa-hydroxy-5-methyl-THF hmTHF Oxidized folate Serum, plasma
Para-aminobenzoylglutamate pABG Folate catabolite 0-0.5 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Acetamidobenzoylglutamate apABG Folate catabolite 0.1-1 nmol/L Serum, plasma

Microbiological assay

Metabolite Abbr Category Reported values Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
Serum folate s-Folate B-vitamin >5 nmol/L Serum, plasma
100-250
Erythrocyte folate e-Folate B-vitamin
Serum cobalamin s-B12 B-vitamin >150 pmol/L Serum, plasma

MALDI-TOF MS, peptide and protein biomarkers

Metabolite Abbr Category Reported values Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
C-reactive protein hsCRP Protein 0-10 µg/ml Serum, plasma
20-100
Serum amyloid A and variants SAA Protein 0-20 µg/ml Serum, plasma
Calprotectin and variants Calp Protein 0-30 µg/ml Serum, plasma
Cystatin C and variants Cys-C Protein 0-8 µg/ml Serum, plasma
HbA1c HbA1c Protein 4-14 % Whole blood

LC-MS/MS, fat-soluble vitamins

Metabolite Abbr Category Reported
values
Matrix
Vol (µL)
(min-optimal)
All-trans retinol Vit. A A vitamer 1.46-2.84 µmol/L Serum, plasma
50-200
25-hydroxy vitamin D2 25OH-D2 D vitamer 0-30 nmol/L Serum, plasma
25-hydroxy vitamin D3 25OH-D3 D vitamer 32.4-98.5 nmol/L Serum, plasma
alpha-tocopherol Vit. E E vitamer 18.9-38.8.0 µmol/L Serum, plasma
gamma-tocopherol Vit. E E vitamer 2-11 µmol/L Serum, plasma
Phylloquinone Vit. K1 K vitamer 0.1-8.7 nmol/L Serum, plasma
Menaquinone-4 Vit. K2 K vitamer