Module 1: NorESM

Headed by Trond Iversen ( and Mats Bentsen (Bjerknes UNI Research).

To firmly establish NorESM as a state-of-the-art computer model for the simulation of the global climate and associated Earth System processes through sustained development, validation and analysis.

(a) To validate NorESM as belonging to the family of state-of-the-art climate and earth system models
(b) To further develop the NorESM with a good balance between the need for increased model resolution and code upgrades, and the need for improved parameterizations and more complex on-line processes
(c) To use NorESM experiments to study basic properties of the earth system's natural climate variability and its response to forcing mechanisms.

See also NorESM wiki.

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Module 2: Climate Variability

Headed by Asgeir Sorteberg (UiB) and Ivar A. Seierstad (

To quantify the magnitude of internal climate variability and distinguish internal variability from externally forced variations using long term observations and climate simulations.

(a) Quantify present day and future atmospheric and oceanic poleward energy transports and the existence of a possible Bjerknes compensation mechanism
(b) Quantification of how changes in the hydrological cycle may feed back on extratropical cyclone intensification
(c) Quantification of how circulation variability related to internal climate variability will influence mid and high latitude precipitation.

Module 3: Radiative Forcing

Headed by Jón Egill Kristjánsson (UiO) and Gunnar Myhre (CICERO).

To improve the estimates of RF by increasing the degree of explicit treatment of aerosols, clouds, short-lived gases and their interactions in NorESM.

(a) To properly account for the contribution of convective clouds to the aerosol indirect effect
(b) To improve the understanding of the indirect effect of cold clouds
(c) To improve estimates of the aerosol direct effect
(d) To improve the representation of the time evolution of short-lived climate forcers.

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Module 4: Climate Sensitivity

Headed by Christoph Heinze (UiB) and Terje Berntsen (UiO).

To quantify and analyse responses and long-term feedbacks in the climate system, and in particular to assess relationships between regional forcing patterns and responses, including non-linear responses, and the climate sensitivity.

(a) Quantification and analysis of short term responses (decadal) as well as long-term feedbacks (centennial) in the climate system
(b) Assessment of regional forcing-response relationships, including non-linear responses
(c) Assessment of the overall climate sensitivity comparing basic and improved models versions
(d) Determine the possibility for changes in the climate sensitity under future climate conditions.

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