43. Onarheim, I., T. Eldevik, L. H. Smedsrud, and J. Stroeve
Seasonal and regional manifestation of Arctic sea ice loss
J. Climate. 2018, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17- 0427.1, in press.
42. A. Meyer, A. Sundfjord, I. Fer, Ilker, C. Provost, N. Villacieros Robineau, Z. Koenig, I. H. Onarheim, L. H. Smedsrud, P. Duarte, P. A. Dodd, R. M. Graham, S. Schmidtko and H. M. Kauko
Winter to summer oceanographic observations in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 2169-9291, 2017, doi: 10.1002/2016JC012391     (Part of NICE_2015 JGR Special Issue)

AMAP, 2017. Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme
(AMAP), Oslo, Norway. xiv + 269 pp.
Chapter 5: Arctic sea ice. Lars H. Smedsrud is one of 18 contributing authors.
41.  P. Assmy, M. Fernández-Méndez, P. Duarte, A. Meyer, A. Randelhoff, C. J. Mundy, L. M. Olsen, H. M. Kauko, A. Bailey, M. Chierici, L. Cohen, A. P. Doulgeris, J. K. Ehn, A.  Fransson, S. Gerland, H. Hop, S. R. Hudson, N. Hughes, P. Itkin, G. Johnsen, J. A. King, B. P. Koch, Z. Koenig, S. Kwasniewski, S. R. Laney, N. Nicolaus, A. K. Pavlov, C. M. Polashenski, C. Provost, A. Rösel, M. Sandbu, G. Spreen, L. H. Smedsrud, A. Sundfjord, T. Taskjelle, A. Tatarek, J. Wiktor, P. M. Wagner, A. Wold, H. Steen and M. A. Granskog.  Leads in Arctic pack ice enable early phytoplankton blooms below snow-covered sea ice
Scientific Reports, 7:40850, 2017, doi: 10.1038/srep40850

40.  L. H. Smedsrud, M. H. Halvorsen, J. C. Stroeve, R. Zhang, and K. Kloster
Fram Strait sea ice export variability and September Arctic sea ice extent over the last 80 years.
The Cryosphere, 11, 65-79, 2017,  http://www.the-cryosphere.net/11/65/2017/ doi:10.5194/tc-11-65-2017

A new long-term data record of Fram Strait sea ice area export from 1935 to 2014 is developed using a combination of satellite radar images and station observations of surface pressure across Fram Strait. This data record shows that the long-term annual mean export is about 880.000 km^2, representing 10% of the sea-ice-covered area inside the basin. The time series has large interannual and multi-decadal variability but no long-term trend. However, during the last decades, the amount of ice exported has increased, with several years having annual ice exports that exceeded 1 million km^2. This increase is a result of faster southward ice drift speeds due to stronger southward geostrophic winds, largely explained by increasing surface pressure over Greenland. Evaluating the trend onwards from 1979 reveals an increase in annual ice export of about C6% per decade, with spring and summer showing larger changes in ice export (+11%per decade) compared to autumn and winter (+2.6% per decade). Increased ice export during winter will generally result in new ice growth and contributes to thinning inside the Arctic Basin. Increased ice export during summer or spring will, in contrast, contribute directly to open water further north and a reduced summer sea ice extent through the ice–albedo feedback. Relatively low spring and summer export from 1950 to 1970 is thus consistent with a higher mid-September sea ice extent for these years. Our results are not sensitive to long-term change in Fram Strait sea ice concentration. We find a general moderate influence between export anomalies and the following September sea ice extent, explaining 18% of the variance between 1935 and 2014, but with higher values since 2004.

39. T. Krumpen, R. Gerdes, C. Haas, S. Hendricks, A. Herber, V. Selyuzhenok, L. Smedsrud, and G. Spreen
Recent summer sea ice thickness surveys in Fram Strait and associated ice volume fluxes
The Cryosphere, 10, 523-534, 2016
http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/523/2016/ doi:10.5194/tc-10-523-2016

38. A. Nummelin, M. Ilicak, C. Li and L. H. Smedsrud
Consequences of Future Increased Arctic Runoff on Arctic Ocean Stratifcation, Circulation, and Sea Ice Cover
Journal of Geophysical Research, Oceans, 121, 617-637, doi:10.1002/2015JC011156, 2016.

37.  V. Ivanov, V. Alexeev, N. V. Koldunov, I. Repina, A. B. Sandø, L. H. Smedsrud and A. Smirnov
Arctic Ocean heat impact on regional ice decay - a suggested positive feedback  

Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46,  1437-1456, 
doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0144.1, 2016

36. I. H. Onarheim, T. Eldevik, M. Årthun, R. B. Ingvaldsen and L. H. Smedsrud

Skillful prediction of Barents Sea ice cover Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 5364–5371, doi:10.1002/2015GL064359, 2015

35. L. H. Smedsrud and T. Martin
Grease ice in basin-scale sea-ice ocean models  Annals of Glaciology, Volume 56, Issue 69, doi:10.3189/2015AoG69A765, 2015

The first stage of sea ice formation is often grease ice, a mixture of sea water and frazil ice crystals. Over time grease ice congeals typically first to pancake ice floes and then to a solid sea ice cover. Grease ice is commonly not explicitly simulated in basin-scale sea-ice ocean models though it affects oceanic heat loss and ice growth and is expected to play a greater role in a more seasonally ice-covered Arctic Ocean. We present an approach to simulate the grease ice layer with basic properties as the surface being at the freezing point, a frazil ice volume fraction of 25%, and a negligible change in the surface heat flux compared to open water. The latter governs grease ice production, and a transition to solid sea ice follows gradually over time with ~50% of the grease ice solidifying within 24 hours. The new parametrisation delays lead closing by solid ice formation, enhances oceanic heat loss in fall and winter, and produces a grease ice layer variable in space and time. Results indicate a 10 - 30% increase in mean winter Arctic Ocean heat loss compared to a standard simulation with instant lead closing leading to significantly enhanced ice growth.

34. A. Nummelin, C. Li and L. H. Smedsrud
Response of Arctic Ocean stratification to changing river runoff in a column model
Journal of Geophysical Research, Oceans, volume 119, doi:10.1002/2014JC010571, 2015.

33. T. Hattermann, L. H. Smedsrud; O. A. Nøst, J. M. Lilly and B. K. Galton-Fenzi
Eddy-resolving simulations of the Fimbul Ice Shelf cavity circulation: Basal melting and exchange with open ocean
Ocean Modelling 82 (2014) 28–44,  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2014.07.004

32. I. H. Onarheim, L. H. Smedsrud, R. B. Ingvaldsen, and F. Nilsen

Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard
Tellus A, 2014, Volume 66, 23933,  doi:10.3402/tellusa.v66.23933

31. M. Zygmuntowska, P. Rampal, N. Ivanova, and L. H. Smedsrud

Uncertainties in Arctic sea ice thickness and volume: new estimates and implications for trends
The Cryosphere, 8, 705-720, 2014, www.the-cryosphere.net/8/705/2014/ doi:10.5194/tc-8-705-2014

30. L. H. Smedsrud, I. Esau, R. B. Ingvaldsen, T. Eldevik, P. M. Haugan, C. Li, V. S. Lien, A. Olsen, A. M. Omar,
O. H. Otterå, B. Risebrobakken, A. B. Sandø, V. A. Semenov, and S. A. Sorokina
The role of the Barents Sea in the Arctic climate system,
Reviews of Geophysics, 51, 415-449,
doi:10.1002/rog.20017, 2013.

Present global warming is amplified in the Arctic and accompanied by unprecedented sea ice decline. Located along the main pathway of Atlantic Water entering the Arctic, the Barents Sea is the site of coupled feedback processes that are important for creating variability in the entire Arctic air-ice-ocean system. As warm Atlantic Water flows through the Barents Sea, it loses heat to the Arctic atmosphere. Warm periods, like today, are associated with high northward heat transport, reduced Arctic sea ice cover, and high surface air temperatures. The cooling of the Atlantic inflow creates dense water sinking to great depths in the Arctic Basins, and ~60% of the Arctic Ocean carbon uptake is removed from the carbon-saturated surface this way. Recently, anomalously large ocean heat transport has reduced sea ice formation in the Barents Sea during winter. The missing Barents Sea winter ice makes up a large part of observed winter Arctic sea ice loss, and in 2050, the Barents Sea is projected to be largely ice free throughout the year, with 4°C summer warming in the formerly ice-covered areas. The heating of the Barents atmosphere plays an important role both in “Arctic amplification” and the Arctic heat budget. The heating also perturbs the large-scale circulation through expansion of the Siberian High northward, with a possible link to recent continental wintertime cooling. Large air-ice-ocean variability is evident in proxy records of past climate conditions, suggesting that the Barents Sea has had an important role in Northern Hemisphere climate for, at least, the last 2500 years.

29. M. G. McPhee, R. Skogseth, F. Nilsen and L. H. Smedsrud

Creation and tidal advection of a cold salinity front in Storfjorden: 2. Supercooling induced by turbulent mixing of cold water 
Journal of Geophysical Research, Oceans, volume 118, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20261, 2013. Copyright AGU. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

28. R. Skogseth, M. G. McPhee, F. Nilsen and L. H. Smedsrud

Creation and tidal advection of a cold salinity front in Storfjorden: 1. Polynya dynamics 
Journal of Geophysical Research, Oceans, volume 118, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20231, 2013. Copyright AGU. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

27. V.A. Alexeev, V. V. Ivanov, R. Kwok, and L. H. Smedsrud
North Atlantic warming and declining volume of arctic sea ice
The Cryosphere Discuss., 7, 245-265, doi:10.5194/tcd-7-245-2013, 2013.

26. H. R. Langehaug, F. Geyer, L. H. Smedsrud, and Y. Gao,
Arctic sea ice decline and ice export in the CMIP5 historical simulations,
Ocean Modelling,Volume 71, 114–126, doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2012.12.006, 2013

25. M. Årthun, T. Eldevik, L. H. Smedsrud, Ø. Skagseth, and R. B. Ingvaldsen.
Quantifying the Influence of Atlantic Heat on Barents Sea Ice Variability and Retreat
Journal of Climate, Volume 25, pages 4736-4743, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00466.1, 2012

24. T. Hattermann, O. A. Nøst, J. M. Lilly, and L. H. Smedsrud
Two years of oceanic observations below the Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica
Geophys. Res. Lett., Volume. 39, L12605, doi:10.1029/2012GL051012, 2012. Copyright AGU. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

23. L. H. Smedsrud, A. Sirevaag, K. Kloster, A. Sorteberg and S. Sandven,

Recent wind driven high sea ice area export in the Fram Strait contributes to Arctic sea ice decline
The Cryosphere, Volume 5, pages 821-829,  www.the-cryosphere.net/5/821/2011, doi:10.5194/tc-5-821-2011, 2011.

Arctic sea ice area has been decreasing for the past two decades. Apart from melting, the southward drift through Fram Strait is the main ice loss mechanism. We present high resolution sea ice drift data across 79°N from 2004 to 2010. Ice drift has been derived from radar satellite data and corresponds well with variability in local geostrophic wind. The underlying East Greenland current contributes with a constant southward speed close to 5 cm/s, and drives around a third of the ice export. We use geostrophic winds derived from reanalysis data to calculate the Fram Strait ice area export back to 1957, finding that the sea ice area export recently is about 25% larger than during the 1960’s. The increase in ice export occurred mostly during winter and is directly connected to higher southward ice drift velocities, due to stronger geostrophic winds. The increase in ice drift is large enough to counteract a decrease in ice concentration of the exported sea ice. Using storm tracking we link changes in geostrophic winds to more intense Nordic Sea low pressure systems. Annual sea ice area export likely has a significant influence on the summer sea ice variability and we find low values in the 1960’s, the late 1980’s and 1990’s, and particularly high values during 2005–2008. The study highlights the possible role of variability in ice export as an explanatory factor for understanding the dramatic loss of Arctic sea ice during the last decades.

22. O.A. Nøst,  M. Biuw, V. Tverberg, C. Lydersen, T. Hattermann, Q. Zhou, L. H. Smedsrud, and K. Kovacs
Eddy overturning of the Antarctic Slope Front controls glacial melting in the eastern Weddell Sea
Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 116, C11014, doi:10.1029/2011JC006965, 2011, Copyright AGU. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

21. B. Risebrobakken, T. Dokken, L.H. Smedsrud, C. Andersson, E. Jansen, M Moros, and E. Ivanova
Early Holocene temperature variability in the Nordic Seas: The role of oceanic heat advection versus changes in orbital forcing
26, PA4206, doi:10.1029/2011PA002117, 2011, Copyright AGU. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

20. M. Årthun, R. B. Ingvaldsen, L. H. Smedsrud, and C. Schrum
Dense water formation and circulation in the Barents Sea  
Deep-Sea Research I, Volume  58, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2011.06.001, pages 801–817, 2011

19. L. H. Smedsrud,
Grease ice thickness parametrisation Annals of Glaciology, Volume 52, Issue 57, pages 77-82, 2011

Grease ice is a mixture of sea water and frazil ice crystals forming in Arctic and Antarctic waters. The initial grease-ice cover, or the grease ice forming during winter in leads and polynyas, may therefore have mixed properties of water and ice. Most sea-ice models use a lower thickness limit on the solid sea ice, representing a transition from grease ice to solid ice. Before grease ice solidifies it is often packed into a layer by the local wind. Existing field measurements of grease ice are compared and used to evaluate a new thickness parameterization including the drag from the wind as well as the ocean current. The measurements support a scaling of the wind drag and the back pressure from the greaseice layer using a nonlinear relation. The relation is consistent with an increasing grease-ice thickness towards a solid boundary. Grease-ice data from Storfjorden, Svalbard, confirm that tidal currents are strong enough to add significant drag force on the grease ice. A typical wind speed of only 10m/s results in a 0.3m thick layer of grease ice. Tidal currents of 0.5m/s will pack the grease ice further towards a stagnant boundary to a mean thickness of 0.8 m.

18. S. Hendricks, S. Gerland, L.H.  Smedsrud, C. Haas, A.A. Pfaffhuber, and F. Nilsen,
Sea Ice Thickness Variability in Storfjorden, Svalbard Archipelago   Annals of Glaciology, Volume 52, Issue 57, pages 61-68, 2011

17. L. H. Smedsrud, R. Ingvaldsen, J. E. Ø. Nilsen, and Ø. Skagseth
Heat in the Barents Sea: Transport, storage and surface fluxes  
Ocean Science, volume 6, number 1, pages  219–234, 2010

A column model is set up for the Barents Sea to explore sensitivity of surface fluxes and heat storage from varying ocean heat transport. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force the simulations. Results show that by using updated ocean transports of heat and freshwater the vertical mean hydrographic seasonal cycle can be reproduced fairly well. Our results indicate that the ~70 TW of heat transported to the Barents Sea by ocean currents is lost in the southern Barents Sea as latent, sensible, and long wave radiation, each contributing 23-39 TW to the total heat loss. Solar radiation adds 26 TW in the south, as there is no significant ice production. The northern Barents Sea receives little ocean heat transport. This leads to a mixed layer at the freezing point during winter and significant ice production. There is little net surface heat loss annually in the north. The balance is achieved by a heat loss through long wave radiation all year, removing most of the summer solar heating. During the last decade the Barents Sea has experienced an atmospheric warming and an increased ocean heat transport. The Barents Sea responds to such large changes by adjusting temperature and heat loss. Decreasing the ocean heat transport below 50 TW starts a transition towards Arctic conditions. The heat loss in the Barents Sea depend on the effective area for cooling, and an increased heat transport leads to a spreading of warm water further north.

16. R. Timmermann, A. Le Brocq, T. Deen, E. Domack, P. Dutrieux, B. Galton-Fenzi, H. Hellmer, A. Humbert, D. Jansen, A. Jenkins, A. Lambrecht, K. Makinson, F. Niederjasper, F. Nitsche, O. A. Nøst, L. H. Smedsrud, and W. H. F. Smith
A consistent data set of Antarctic ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and global bathymetry
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 261–273, 2010, doi:10.5194/essd-2-261-2010

15. F. Geyer, I. Fer and L. H. Smedsrud
Structure and forcing of the overflow at the Storfjorden sill and its connection to the Arctic coastal polynya in Storfjorden
Ocean Scince, volume 6, number 1, pages  401-411, 2010

14. E. Darelius, L.H. Smedsrud, S. Østerhus, A. Foldvik, and T. Gammelsrød
Structure and Variability of the Filchner Overflow Plume
Tellus A (2009), volume 61, Issue 3, pages 446–464 , doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2009.00391.x

13. R. Skogseth, F. Nilsen and L. H. Smedsrud
Supercooled Water in an Arctic Polynya : Observations and Modeling
Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 55, pages 43-52, No. 189, 2009

12. Lars H. Smedsrud, Asgeir Sorteberg, and Kjell Kloster
Recent and future changes of the Arctic sea-ice cover
Geophysical  Research Letters (2008)  35, L20503, doi:10.1029/2008GL034813.  Copyright AGU.  Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

The present and future state of the Arctic sea ice cover is explored using new observations and a coupled one dimensional air–sea–ice model. Updated satellite observations of Fram Strait ice-area export show an increase over the last four years, with 37% increase in winter 07-08. Atmospheric poleward energy flux declined since 1990, but advection of oceanic heat has recently increased. Simulations show that the ice area export is a stronger driver of thinning than the estimated ocean heat fluxes of 40 TW. Increased ocean heat transport will raise primarily Atlantic layer temperature. The ’present 2007’ state of the Arctic ice could be a stable state given the recent high ice area export, but if ocean heat advection and ice export decrease, the ice cover will recover. A 2*CO2 scenario with export and oceanic heat flux remaining strong, forecasts a summer Arctic open ocean area of 95% around 2050.

11. Ragnheid Skogseth, Lars H. Smedsrud, Frank Nilsen and Ilker Fer 
Observations of hydrography and downflow of brine-enriched shelf water in the Storfjorden polynya, Svalbard
Journal of Geophysical Research (2008) 113, C08049, doi:10.1029/2007JC004452.  Copyright AGU. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

10. Lars H. Smedsrud , W. Paul Budgell, Alastair D. Jenkins , and Bjørn Ådlandsvik
Fine scale sea ice modelling of the Storfjorden polynya
Annals of Glaciology (2006), volume 44, 73-79.

A polynya appears regularly in Storfjorden on the east side of the Svalbard archipelago. It is mainly forced by offshore winds and contributes around 10% of the brine water produced on Arctic shelves. We apply a regional ocean model (ROMS), including a sea ice model, on a fine grid (2~km) that allows us to reproduce some key processes of the polynya opening and closing events during January-April 2000. The polynya remains open as long as the offshore winds exist, and reaches a width along the direction of the wind of 10-20 km. We suggest using a mean sea ice thickness of less than 0.3 m as the polynya criterion, as our computations show no sharp changes in the horizontal gradients in sea ice concentration and thickness. Results show a general freezeup during December and January, with a mean polynya area within the fjord of 33 by 50 km. Some model results including sea ice cover and drift speed can be partially validated using satellite imagery, but in general are there no measurements available at this scale.

9. Lars H. Smedsrud and Ragnheid Skogseth
Field measurements of Arctic grease ice properties and processes
Cold Regions Science and Technology (2006), Volume 44, Issue 3, April, 171-183,  doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2005.11.002. Copyright Elsevier. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

In situ measurements of grease ice from fjords on Svalbard reveal new basic properties of the surface ice cover. New ice formation often takes place as growing frazil crystals in a surface layer of grease ice. A method for sampling grease ice is described. The grease ice layer is found to be as thick as 70 cm in places, but many of the measurements are around 10 cm. Salinity of the bulk grease ice is around 25 psu, while the drained grease has salinity around 20 psu. Ice concentration is calculated based on the measured salinity and is around 25% for the grease, and above 60% for the new solid ice. Atmospheric and oceanographic forcing, as well as hydrography of the polynya in Storfjorden on Svalbard, are also presented. Salt release from the growing grease ice clearly influences local hydrography, and local tidal currents, as strong as 53 cm/s, keep the polynya open during calm wind conditions. This indicates the strong links between the grease ice layer and the boundary layers above and below. Existing parameterizations for grease ice thickness in relation to wind speed are discussed and found to be inadequate. We suggest that tidally driven turbulence and the effect of snow drift is significant to include in future theoretical descriptions of grease ice processes.

8. Lars H. Smedsrud, Adrian Jenkins, David M. Holland and Ole A. Nøst
Modeling ocean processes below Fimbulisen, Antarctica
Journal of Geophysical Research (2006) Volume 111, C01007, doi:10.1029/2005JC002915. Copyright AGU. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

Model simulations of circulation and melting beneath Fimbulisen, Antarctica, obtained using an isopycnic coordinate ocean model, are presented. Model results compare well with available observations of currents and hydrography in the open ocean, to the north of Fimbulisen and suggest that Warm Deep Water exists above the level of a sub ice shelf bedrock sill - the principal pathway for warm waters to enter the sub ice shelf cavity. The model shows a southward inflow of Warm Deep Water over this sill and into the cavity, producing a mean cavity temperature of -1.0 C. This leads to high levels of basal melting (>10 m/a) at the grounding line of Jutulstraumen, and an average melting over the ice shelf base close to 1.9 m/a. The southward inflow is a compensating flow caused by the northward outflow of fresh, cold water produced by the basal melting. Results on inflow and melting are difficult to validate as no in situ measurements yet exist in the cavity. If such high melt rates are realistic, the mass balance of Fimbulisen must be significantly negative and the ice shelves along Queen Maud Land must contribute about 4.4 mSv of melt water to the Weddell Sea, about 15% of the total Antarctic meltwater input to the Southern Ocean.

7. Lars H. Smedsrud
Warming of the deep water in the Weddell Sea along the Greenwich meridian: 1977 - 2001
Deep Sea Research Part I (2005)  Volume 52, February, Issue 2, 241 - 258. Copyright Elsevier. Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

The Weddell Deep Water (WDW) has warmed substantially along the Greenwich meridian after the Weddell Polynya of the 1970's. Areas affected by the polynya received ~14 GJ/m² more heat in 2001 than in 1977. This warming would require a flux of ~ 390 W/m² if it were to take place over a year. Large variations in heat content of the WDW is found between the Antarctic coast and Maud Rise (64°S). The small variation found north of Maud Rise is in opposite phase to that to the south, and the warming was  close to monotonic south of 68°S. The mean warming of WDW along the section is ~0.032°C per decade, comparable to the warming of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The mean warming compares with a surface heat flux of 4 W/m² over the 25 year period, an order of magnitude higher than the warming of the global ocean. As variation in mean salinity of the WDW follows the warming/cooling events, variation in inflow probably explains a cooling event between 1984 and 1989, and a warming event between 1989 and 1992.  Cooling during the late 1990's is probably related to re-appearance of a polynya like feature in some winter months as an area of 100 km in diameter close to Maud Rise with 10-20 % lower sea ice concentrations than the surrounding ocean.

E. Fahrbach, M. Hoppema, G. Rohardt, M. Schröder and A. Wisotzki
Causes of deep-water variation: Comment on the paper by L.H. Smedsrud “Warming of the deep water in the Weddell Sea along the Greenwich meridian: 1977–2001”
Deep Sea Research Part I (2006) Volume 53, March, Issue 3, 574-577. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2005.12.003, Copyright Elsevier.

Lars H. Smedsrud

Causes of deep-water variations: Reply to comment by E. Fahrbach, M. Hoppema, G. Rohardt, M. Schroder and A Wisotzki
Deep Sea Research Part I (2006) Volume 53, March, Issue 3, 578-580. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2005.12.010, Copyright Elsevier. 


6. Lars H. Smedsrud and Adrian Jenkins
Frazil Ice Formation in an Ice Shelf Water Plume
Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans (2004)  Volume 109, Number C3, C03025, 10.1029/2003JC001851, Copyright AGU.  Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.
We present a model for the growth of frazil ice crystals and their accumulation as marine ice at the base of Antarctic ice shelves. The model describes the flow of buoyant water upwards along the ice shelf base, and includes the differential growth of a range of crystal sizes. Frazil ice formation starts when the rising plume becomes supercooled. Initially the majority of crystals have a radius of ~0.3 mm, and concentrations are below 0.1 g/l. Depending on the ice shelf slope, which controls the plume speed, frazil crystals increase in size and number. Typically crystals up to 0.8 mm in radius are kept in suspension, and concentrations reach a maximum of 0.4 g/l. The frazil ice in suspension decreases the plume density and so increases the plume speed. Larger crystals precipitate upwards onto the ice shelf base first, with smaller crystals following as the plume slows down. In this way marine ice is formed at rates of up to 4 m/year in some places, consistent with areas of observed basal accumulation on Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. The plume continues below the ice shelf as long as it is buoyant. If the plume reaches the ice front, its rapid rise produces high supercooling and the ice crystals attain a radius of several mm before reaching the surface. Similar ice crystals have been trawled at depth north of Antarctic ice shelves, but otherwise no observations exist to verify these first predictions of ice crystal sizes and volumes.

5. Lars H. Smedsrud
Formation of turbid ice during autumn freeze up in the Kara Sea
Polar Research (2003) Volume 22, Number 2, 267 - 286.

A 1-D (vertical) model is used to estimate the mass of ice rafted sediment in turbid sea ice on the shallow Kara Sea shelf during autumn freeze up. Sediment is entrained into the ice through aggregation with frazil ice crystals that are diffused downwards by wind-generated turbulence. Data from local meteorological stations are discussed and used to force the model, while water stratification and sediment concentrations from the area are used to initiate the model. Model results indicate a 0.2 m thick layer of slush ice created during 48 h with a mean wind of 6 m/s and an air temperature of -10°C. This ice contains ~ 20 mg/l of sediment, or in total ~ 2 % of the annual sediment discharge by nearby rivers. In shallow areas (< 20 m depth) the process is very effective with winds of ~12 m/s, and the process can incorporate many years of sediment discharge. In the deeper areas (> 20 m depth) the strong salinity stratification implies that winds above 18 m/s are needed for the process to be effective. For the rest of the winter months the same process may lead to additional sediment incorporated in a coastal polynya, but the freeze up alone has the capacity to incorporate the total summer discharge of sediment into the surface ice.  Calculated sediment concentrations in the surface ice cover are in the range 3 mg/l - 19 g/l, in good agreement with available field data.

4. L. H. Smedsrud, T. M. Saloranta,  P. M. Haugan, and T. Kangas
Sea  ice formation on a very cold surface

Geophysical  Research Letters (2003) Volume 30 , Number 6, 1284, doi:10.1029/2002GL016786,  Copyright AGU.  Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

In this study laboratory experiments of sea ice formed on a vertical surface with initial temperature of -30 to -50°C are presented. The ice formation is rapid, and in 300 s >5 mm of sea ice is formed. Ice formation cooled and salinified the water, and induced a vertical down wards flow of ~5 mm/s  with a boundary layer about 5 mm thick. This ice has a structure with columnar crystals that have small circular cross sections (0.2-1.0 mm) and sea ice salinities are between 24 and 32. A simple model approach indicate that the thermal conductivity of such ice is lower than for other types of sea ice.

3. Lars H. Smedsrud
A model for entrainment of sediment into sea ice by aggregation between frazil ice crystals and sediment grains
Journal of Glaciology (2002), Volume 48, Number 160, 51-61.

A vertical numerical model that simulates tank experiments of sediment entrainment into sea ice has been developed. Physical processes considered were: turbulent vertical diffusion of heat, salt, sediment, frazil ice and their aggregates; differential growth of frazil ice crystals; secondary nucleation of crystals; and aggregation between sediment and ice. The model approximated the real size distribution of frazil ice and sediment using 5 classes of each. Frazil crystals (25 mikro m to 1.5 cm) were modeled as disks with a constant thickness of 1/30 their diameter. Each class had a constant rise velocity based on the density of ice and drag forces. Sediment grains (1- 600 mikro m) were modeled as constant density spheres, with corresponding sinking velocities. The vertical diffusion was set constant for experiments based on calculated turbulent rms velocities and dissipation rates from current data. The balance between the rise/sinking velocities and the constant vertical diffusion is an important feature in the model. The efficiency of the modeled entrainmentprocess was estimated through ß, an aggregation factor . Values for ß are in the range < 0.0003, 0.1 >, but average values are often close to 0.01. Entrainment increases with increasing sediment concentration and turbulence of the water, and heat flux to the air.

2. Lars H. Smedsrud
Frazil ice entrainment of sediment: large-tank laboratory experiments
Journal of Glaciology (2001) Volume 47, Number 158, 461 - 471.

Laboratory experiments that simulate natural ice formation processes and sediment entrainment in shallow water are presented. A 10 - 30 cm/s current was forced with impellers in a 20 m long and 1 m deep indoor tank. Turbulence in the flow maintained a suspension of sediments at concentrations of 10 - 20 mg/l at a depth of 0.5 m. Low air temperatures (-15°C) and 5 m/s winds resulted in total upward heat fluxes in the range 140 - 260 W/m². The cooling produced frazil ice crystals up to 2 cm in diameter with concentrations up to 4.5 g/l at 0.5 m depth. Considerable temporal variability with time scales of less than 1 minute was documented. A close to constant portion of the smaller frazil crystals remained in suspension. After some hours the larger crystals, which made up the majority of the ice volume, accumulated as slush at the surface. Current measurements were used to calculate the turbulent dissipation rate, and estimates of vertical diffusion were derived. After 5 - 8 hours sediment concentrations in the surface slush were normally close to those of the water. After 24 hours, however, concentrations in the slush were 2-4 times higher. Data indicate that sediment entrainment depends on high heat fluxes and correspondingly high frazil ice production rates, as well as sufficiently strong turbulence. Waves do not seem to increase sediment entrainment significantly.

1. Lars H. Smedsrud
Estimating aggregation between suspended sediments and frazil ice
Geophysical Research Letters (1998) Volume 25, Number 20, 3875 -3878. Copyright AGU.  Further reproduction or electronic distribution is not permitted.

This paper aims to describe the scavenging process, one of the main processes for incorporating sediments (particles) into sea ice. An experiment with suspended sediment and frazil ice in a homogeneous turbulent flow is presented. At the end sediment where incorporated into the surface grease ice. The ice production was constant, and calculated from the salinity measurements, while the turbulent dissipation rate was calculated from high resolution current measurements. A model for aggregation between suspended sediment and frazil is also presented and used to simulate the experiment. The modeled aggregation process depends primarily on concentrations, on the turbulence levels, and on the (constant) radii of the sediments and ice. Efficiency of the aggregation process is estimated from the model and experimental results, and the "aggregation" factor is found to be ~ 0.025. This is consistent with theoretical estimates, qualitative observations from laboratory experiments, and field data. Sensitivity analyses suggest that the results do not depend greatly on uncertainty of model parameters.

Lars H. Smedsrud

Frazil ice formation and incorporation of sediments into sea ice in the Kara Sea
Dr. Scient. Thesis (2000) Geophysical Institute. 

Frazil ice formation in turbulent salt water is investigated through laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. Increasing frazil ice volumes and change in the size distribution are observed. Frazil ice aggregate with sediments in suspension, and form a surface ice cover. The efficiency of the process is estimated empirically and results are applied to field data from the Kara Sea continental shelf by use of the developed model. Field samples of sediment laden sea ice from the Kara Sea are presented and compared to the estimates. A substantial mass of sediments may be incorporated by the aggregation process given high levels of turbulence, i.e. strong wind under natural conditions.

Lars H. Smedsrud

Incorporation of sediments into sea ice in coastal polynyas in the Kara sea
Report (2000)  Norwegian Polar Institute, April 10.

Estimates for the mass of ice rafted sediments in coastal polynyas in the Kara Sea are given by use of a vertical numerical model. The incorporation of sediment take place as frazil ice crystals form and aggregate with sediments in suspension. Three different cases are considered: i) The autumn freeze up where there is no sea ice initially, ii) A mean monthly coastal polynya based on monthly SSMI derived ice drift, and iii) A case study in January - March 1994 with 3 day means of ice drift from SAR images. The model is forced by observed air temperature and wind speed from nearby meteorological stations. Results indicate that the process is capable incorporating about 10 % of the annual sediment discharge during an average winter, and that episodes with values substantially higher may take place. Several years of sediment discharge may be incorporated during an autumn freeze under high winds, and a mean monthly mass of ice rafted sediments may be incorporated during 3 days given a high northwards speed of the ice cover.