Chromatographic animations

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Band broadening

The animations illustrate the effects that lead to broadening of peaks in open tubular columns, resistance to mass transfer (C term) and longitudinal diffusion (B term).

The mass transfer term (C term)

The example show band broadening by resistance to mass transfer for a system with very low diffusion compared to the mobile phase velocity.
(The conditions illustrated are extreme and not representative for a real system).

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Longitudinal diffusion (B term)

Even if the stationary phase is removed (so there cannot be a C term) there is some bradening of the initial band. This is caused by longitudinal diffusion that lead to net transfer of molecules from the center of the band, where the concentration is highest.

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